Socio-Cultural Determinants of Educational Narratives: Exploratory Analysis of Statements of Chinese Mothers

Keywords: child; home education; education; cross-cultural study, Chinese mothers; educational narratives; communication


The main goal of the study presented below is to provide an explanatory analysis of the influence of cultural factors on educational methods. Nine Chinese mothers from Beijing were asked a number of questions regarding the upbringing of their young children. The answers given by these mothers were carefully analysed on the basis of eighteen research categories, for example, “reference to the child’s feelings,” “the child as boss” and “reprimand.” These research categories were subject to detailed exploration. The study confirmed that Chinese mothers are very involved in bringing up their children, with their protection often going as far as overprotection. It also found that the position of the child in the family, due to demographic, social and cultural changes, has been transformed; the child has taken the key place and his or her needs have become paramount.


Afek, Joanna, i Arkadiusz Gut. 2017. „O chińskim modelu wczesnej edukacji dziecięcej w kontekście międzykulturowych badań psychologicznych”. Roczniki Humanistyczne 65, fasc. 9: 5–28. DOI:

Camras, Linda A., Sun Keping, Brittney R. Fraumeni i Yan Li. 2017. „Interpretations of Parenting by Mainland Chinese and U.S. American Children”. Parenting 17, no. 4: 262–280. DOI:

Chao, Ruth K. 1994. „Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting thought Cultural Notion of Training”. Child Development 65, no. 4: 1111–1119. DOI:

Chao, Ruth K. 2001. „Extending research on the consequences of parenting for Chinese Americans and European Americans”. Child Development 72, no. 6: 1832-1843. DOI:

Chen, Xinyin, Qi Dong i Hong Zhou, 1997. „Authoritative and Authoritarian Parenting Practicesand Social and School Performance in Chinese Children”. International Journal of Behavioral Development 21, no. 4: 855–873. DOI: 84703.

Chen, Xinyin, Mowei Liu, Boshu Li, Guozhen Cen, Huichang Chen i Li Wang. 2000. „Maternal authoritative and authoritarian attitudes and mother–child interactions and relationships in urban China”. International Journal of Behavioral Development 24, no 1: 119–126. DOI:

China Daily USA. 2013. „Vice minister meets press on fertility policy change”. China Daily. Dostęp 10.08.2018.

Chuang, Susan S., Su Yanjie. 2009. „Do We See Eye to Eye? Chinese Mothers’ and Fathers’ Parenting Beliefs and Values for Toddlers in Canada and China”. Journal of Family Psychology, Vol. 23, No.3, 331–341. DOI:

Choy, Grace. 2017. „Chinese Culture in Early Educational Environment”. W: Nirmala Rao, Jing Zhou, Jin Sun (eds.). Early Childhood Education in Chinese Societies, 31–54. Dordrecht: Springer.

Falbo, Toni. 2018. „Evaluations of the behavioral attributes of only children in Beijing, China: moderating effects of gender and the one-child policy”. Heliyon 4, no. 4. DOI:

Francis, Becky, i Louise Archer. 2005. „British–Chinese pupils’ and parents’ constructions of the value of education”. British Educational Research Journal 31, no. 1: 89–108.

Gut, Arkadiusz, Michał Wilczewski i Oleg Gorbaniuk. 2017. „Cultural Differences, Stereotypes and Communication Needs in Intercultural Communication in a Global Multicultural Environment. The Employees’ Perspective”. Journal of Intercultural Communication, Issue 43 (March) 2017.

Lee, Erica H., Qing Zhou, Nancy Eisenberg i Yun Wang. 2012. „Bidirectional relations between temperament and parenting styles in Chinese children”. International Journal of Behavioral Development 37, no. 1: 57–67. DOI: 12460795.

Liu, Mowei, Xinyin Chen, Kenneth H. Rubinc, Shujie Zheng, Liying Cui, Dan Lie, Huichang Chen i Li Wang. 2005. „Autonomy- vs. connectedness-oriented parenting behaviours in Chinese and Canadian mothers. International Journal of Behavioral Development. 29 (6), 489–495. DOI:

Nisbett, Richard E. 2007. „Eastern and Western ways of perceiving the world”. W: Yuichi Shoda, Daniel Cervone, Geraldine Downey (eds.). Persons in context: Building a science of the individual, 62–83. New York: The Guilford Press.

Nisbett, Richard E., Kaiping Peng, Incheol Choi i Ara Norenzayan. 2001. „Culture and systems of thought: Holistic versus analytic cognition”. Psychological Review 108, no. 2: 291–310. DOI:

Ren, Lixin, i Carolyn Pope Edwards. 2015. „Pathways of influence: Chinese parents’ expectations, parenting styles, and child social competence”. Early Child Development and Care, 185, no. 4: 614–630. DOI:

Ruffman, Ted, Lence Slade, Kerry Devitt i Elena Crowe. 2006. „What mothers say and what they do: The relation between parenting, theory of mind, language and conflict/ cooperation”. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 24: 105–124. DOI: 026151005X82848.

Ruffman, Ted, Lence Slade i Elena Crowe. 2002. „The relation between children’s and mothers’ mental state language and theory-of-mind understanding”. Child Development 73, no. 3: 734–751. DOI:

Ruffman, Ted, Josef Perner i Lindsay Parkin. 1999. „How parenting style affects false belief understanding”. Social Development 8, no. 3: 395–411). DOI:

Shahaeian, Ameneh, Mark Nielsen, Candida C. Peterson i Virginia Slaughter. 2014. „Iranian Mothers’ Disciplinary Strategies and Theory of Mind in Children: A Focus on Belief Understanding. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 45, no. 7: 1110-1123. DOI:

Sun, Jin, i Nirmala Rao. 2017. „Growing Up in Chinese Families and Societies”. W: Nirmala Rao, Jing Zhou, Jin Sun (eds.). Early Childhood Education in Chinese Societies, 11–30. Dordrecht: Springer.

Wang, Q., i Lei Chang. 2010. „Parenting and child socialization in contemporary China”. W: Michael Harris Bond (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Psychology, 53–67. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wang, Chenggang, i Liu Dan. 2006. „The Influences of the Chinese Modern Family Changes on the Socialization of Children”. Frontiers of Education in China 1, no. 1: 161–167. DOI:

Wardęga, Joanna. 2015. Współczesne społeczeństwo chińskie. Konsekwencje przemian modernizacyjnych. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek.

Wu, Peixia, Clyde C. Robinson, Chongming Yang, Craig H. Hart, Susanne F. Olsen, Christin L. Porter, Shenghua Jin, Jianzhong Wo i Xinzi Wu. 2002. „Similarities and differences in mothers’ parenting of preschoolers in China and the United States”. International Journal of Behavioral Development 26, no. 6: 481–491. DOI:

Xu, Yiyuan, Jo Ann M. Farver, Zengxiu Zhang, Qiang Zeng, Lidong Yu i Beiying Cai (2005). „Mainland Chinese parenting styles and parent–child interaction”. International Journal of Behavioral Development 29, no. 6: 524–531. DOI:

Yee, Terence. 2016. Filial Therapy: Cultural Considerations for Chinese Parents. International Journal of Play Therapy, 25, no. 3: 123–132. DOI: