Roczniki Humanistyczne <p><strong><em>Roczniki Humanistyczne </em></strong><strong>(Annals of Arts)<em>&nbsp;</em></strong>is an academic journal of the humanities published by the Learned Society of the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin and the Faculty of Humanities of the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin. It has appeared without interruption since 1949.<br><em>Roczniki Humanistyczne </em>is a platform of exchange of ideas in four areas of the humanities – literary studies, linguistics, history, and art history – as well as across these disciplines.<br><em>Roczniki Humanistyczne </em>publishes research articles, review articles, reviews, and short communications. Contributions are accepted in Polish, English, German, Dutch, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, and&nbsp;Ukrainian. The language of contribution may vary depending on fascicle.</p> Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL & Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II – Wydział Nauk Humanistycznych en-US Roczniki Humanistyczne 0035-7707 Ciceronian Inspirations in Martini Cromeri Monachus, sive Colloquiorum de religione […] liber I ( p. 34-40) <p>Martinus Cromerus (1512-1589), the secretary of last Polish kings from Jagiellonian dynasty: Sigismundus I and Sigismundus II Augustus, bishop of Warmia, was distinguished humanist and appreciated historiographer. His work was part of a polemic dialog with Reformation. Between 1541-1544 four anonymous volumes of <em>Rozmowy Dworzanina z Mnichem </em>were published. Their main purpose was to discourage Polish people from converting to Evangelism. Cromerus wrote about it in latin prafaetio for two first editions of <em>Colloquiorum de religione </em>from 1559 year and completed edition titled <em>Monachus, sive Colloquiorum de religione libri quattuor...</em> from 1568 year. In preface he mentioned reasons of creating latin versions of the dialogs, and in edition for year 1568 about his work method with text. Both authors declarations, comparison of polish and latin texts and between latin editons show that <em>Monachus, sive Colloquiorum de religione libri quattuor </em>is not a translation of Polish dialog. Individual editions of <em>colloquiorum libri... </em>contain differences in content as well as in style. Stylistical devices used by Cromerus in the fragment of first dialog from first volume <em>Monachus… </em>is the subject of this article. The author described riots and religious conflicts (mostly war with <em>Smalcaldica confoederatio</em>) imitating style of Ciceros speeches. Analysis of chosen sentences from above mentioned fragment provides evidence that Kromer has purposely used rhetorical devices and their connections form Ciceronian speeches (eg. <em>De imperio Cn. Pompei</em>,<em> Pro Caelio</em>). Analysed passaged seems to be the most rhetorical passus in over 1000 pages of Cromerus’ work, is a great ilustration of Warmian Bishops rhetorical abilities and therefore it deserves sixteenth century polish-latin prose researchers’ attention.</p> Agnieszka Dziuba Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-02-07 2020-02-07 68 3 7 22 10.18290/rh20683-1 Latin and Greek in Contemporary Names of Human Medicines on the Polish Market <p>The aim of the article is to show that Latin and Greek derived words are still effectively used in Polish pharmaceutical terminology. The study focuses on the trade names of medicinal products and the forms in which these terms appear in the above mentioned nomenclature. The author defines some noticeable and characteristic paradigms of the presence of Latin and Greek forms that occur in specific groups of medicines identified in the article, points to some visible trends in the use of non-classical languages and emphasizes the importance of Latin and Greek in the ever-growing Polish pharmaceutical market.</p> Adriana Grzelak-Krzymianowska Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-02-07 2020-02-07 68 3 23 36 10.18290/rh20683-2 Xenophont In Pseudo-Xenophont’s Letters and in Fictional Letters of Socrates and Socratics <p>The aim of the analysis of the apocryphal correspondence of Pseudo-Xenophon, which tradition has given us with two independent paths—7 excerpts preserved in the <em>Anthology</em> by Stobaeus and 6 entire letters included in the <em>Socratis et Socraticorum epistole</em> (ed. R. Hercher)—is an attempt to delineate on their basis, a portrait of Xenophon, commonly accepted in the time of the Roman Empire. Pseudo-Xenophon letters clearly define the creator of <em>Anabasis</em> as the philosopher of Socratic, basically keeping silent about his historical work. They give us testimony to his thought, deeply rooted in Socratic ethics, focused on <em>kalokagathia.</em> Continuous pursuit of virtue through consistent improvement not only in pure ethics, but also in specific skills that are supposed to bring benefits, pointed to the key importance of <em>paideia</em> in Xenophont’s work as a pupil of Socrates. In these letters, the reference points are mostly ἐγκράτεια, καρτερία, ἀνδρεία, εὐσέβεια, φιλανθρωπία and finally σωφροσύνη, i.e. the virtues that form the core of Socratic ethics.</p> Anna Marchewka Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-02-07 2020-02-07 68 3 37 56 10.18290/rh20683-3 Human Drama in Aristotle’s Poetics <p>The aim of this paper is to present drama as it figures in Aristotle’s <em>Poetics</em> as a human event. According to the author, reversing the mechanism of imitation (<em>mimesis</em>) used to create tragedy makes it possible to treat the <em>Poetics</em> as primarily a bearer of knowledge about actual persons. The feelings of pity and fear that should be aroused by tragedy reveal the essence of human drama per se. Such drama results from the fact that a person faces evil in the sense of a deficiency or lack of something affecting such aspects of their life as their integrity or self-perfection. It thus manifests our human proneness to mistakes, as well as susceptibility to existential injury, and in so doing emphasizes the impermanence of the human situation and existence itself.</p> Piotr Stanislaw Mazur Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-02-07 2020-02-07 68 3 57 69 10.18290/rh20683-4 The Aantique Argumentation a persona in Inscriptions on Modern Gravestones <p>Antique rhetoricians produced <em>loci a persona</em> directories, i.e. lists of circumstances (<em>circumstantiae</em>) or attributes (<em>attributa</em>) relating to the person being described. Some of them, such as Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, valued the importance of these loci as <em>sedes argumentorum</em>, i.e. sources that can be referred to for arguments. The categories identified by the antique scholars are largely consistent with those identified in the descriptions of the dead, and thus in the structure of gravestone inscriptions, by modern researchers studying this form of writing, including Thomas Correa, Jacobus Pontanus, Gaetano Felice Verani, to mention only a few. In his work entitled <em>De poesi hodiernorum politicorum sive de argutis inscriptionibus libri II</em>, Christian Weise argues that this coincidence is not accidental. This scholar points out clearly that rhetoric topics can be used for a persona epigraphic inscriptions. The assertions made by epigraph researchers are reflected in the preserved epigraphs. The writers made efforts to refer, as concisely as possible, to the largest possible number of <em>loci a persona</em>. An example shows that the tendency towards amplification through congeries was not linked with the size of the gravestone or the cost of making it, but was a result of the aesthetic preferences of the time.</p> Jarosław Nowaszczuk Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-02-07 2020-02-07 68 3 71 92 10.18290/rh20683-5 The Authenticity of the Corpus Theognideum throughout the History of its Transmission: Manuscripts and the First Printed Critical Editions <p><em>Corpus Theognideum</em> constitutes the largest anthology of poetry composed in the archaic or classical period as well as the only elegiac text that has been transmitted by medieval manuscripts. Nevertheless, the form in which we know this collection is provided an important basis for the discussion about its authenticity. The present article is the result of the examination of the problem both about the history of disputes concerning that subject, and about the reception of the Theognidean poems, traced in Byzantine, early modern and modern period. Special focus has been given to the manuscript tradition, e.g. the most ancient codex Paris suppl. gr. 388 and Vaticanus, gr. 915, which bears witness to the popularity of the Theognidean elegies in the Byzantine age. The very raising of the subject in the form presented above was inspired by Hans-Georg Gadamer’s hermeneutic method: based on this methodological proposal, the author sought to understand the evidence of the past in the proper historical context and to revise some dogmatic interpretations of other researchers; in this manner the author notes that the transmission of <em>Corpus Theognideum</em> is not really a solid foundation on which to build an argument about the falseness of the whole collection.</p> Jan Skarbek-Kazanecki Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-02-07 2020-02-07 68 3 93 109 10.18290/rh20683-6 Apotheosis of the Coat of Arms of Bishop Józef Marceli Dzięcielski (1768-1839) in the Latin Heraldic Poems in the Ordos of the Diocese of Lublin <p>The collection of thirteen Latin heraldic poems presented in this article was dedicated to Bishop Józef Marceli Dzięcielski. He was a shepherd of the Diocese of Lublin in the years 1825-1839. The heraldic poems have been known in literary circuit since the 15th century. Those that appeared in dioecesan ordos have been rarely analyzed and translated. This is due to the elitist nature of these usable prints, ultimately directed to dioecesan clergy. It is all the more worth presenting them to a&nbsp;broader audience, as they are also an element of the literary output of the era. The article and the poems analyzed in it bring some more knowledge of Bishop Józef Marceli Dzięcielski, of his coat of arms, and of his ministry. They can also provoke a discussion on the completed translation and the solutions applied in it.</p> Agnieszka Strycharczuk Jarosław R. Marczewski Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-02-07 2020-02-07 68 3 111 132 10.18290/rh20683-7 The Issue of Periodization of the Latin Literature in the Time of the Roman Republic <p>The article deals with the problem of periodization of Latin literature in the time of the Roman Republic. The author recognizes the traditional division into three literary periods (i.e. archaic, Ciceronian and Augustean) as partially correct. Basing on J. Krzyżanowski’s theory of periodization of literature (1937), which assumes the cyclical nature of phenomena in the field of culture and literature, the author proposes to separate four successive historical-literary phases: [1] the early-archaic or ‟Hellenizing” period (240–160 BC); [2] the late-archaic or ‟reactionary” period (160–81 BC); [3] the Ciceronian age (81–31 BC); [4] the Augustean age (31 BC–14 AD). The individual literary periods stand in clear opposition to the preceding and following phases. They contain dominant currents and literary phenomena, different than in the preceding and immediately following them. Taking into account the criterion of foreign (Hellenic) influences and nativity, we can easily conclude that odd periods [1, 3] are clearly favorable to the Greeks, which is manifested, inter alia, in translating or adapting the most important works of Greek literature, using literary genres existing in Greece, acquiring foreign metrical structures, literary motifs or philosophical currents, while in even periods [2, 4] Latin writers introduce native themes and purely Roman motifs, as well as develop their own literary genres (e.g. Roman satire, subjective love elegy).</p> Krzysztof Tomasz Witczak Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-02-07 2020-02-07 68 3 133 153 10.18290/rh20683-8