Roczniki Humanistyczne <p><strong><em>Roczniki Humanistyczne </em></strong><strong>(Annals of Arts)<em>&nbsp;</em></strong>is an academic journal of the humanities published by the Learned Society of the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin and the Faculty of Humanities of the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin. It has appeared without interruption since 1949.<br><em>Roczniki Humanistyczne </em>is a platform of exchange of ideas in four areas of the humanities – literary studies, linguistics, history, and art history – as well as across these disciplines.<br><em>Roczniki Humanistyczne </em>publishes research articles, review articles, reviews, and short communications. Contributions are accepted in Polish, English, German, Dutch, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, and&nbsp;Ukrainian. The language of contribution may vary depending on fascicle.</p> Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL & Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II – Wydział Nauk Humanistycznych en-US Roczniki Humanistyczne 0035-7707 Conditions for the Construction and Development of the Naval Base of the People’s Republic of China in Djibouti <p>The subject of the article is the conditions for the construction and development of the People’s Republic of China’s naval base in Djibouti. It consists of an introduction, three parts and conclusion. The introduction discusses the methodological assumptions of the article. The first part presents the reasons for the location of China’s first foreign naval base in Djibouti. The second part is devoted to issues concerning the base’s construction and development. The third part examines the consequences of locating a Chinese base in Djibouti for the purpose of strategic rivalry between states. The research takes into account both the local, regional and global perspective. The most important conclusions and summaries, as well as prospects for the development of the base in Djibouti and further activities of the PRC in the field of maritime expansion, are presented at the end.</p> Łukasz Jureńczyk Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 5 20 10.18290/rh20689-1 Beyond East and West: What ‘Ladder’ Did John Wu Use Towards This Goal? (Part One) <p>John Wu Jingxiong (1899-1986) was a diplomat, scholar, and authority on international law. He was also a prominent Chinese Catholic convert. His spiritual autobiography&nbsp;<em>Beyond East and West&nbsp;</em>(1951) reminds us of the&nbsp;<em>Confessiones</em>&nbsp;of St. Augustine for its moving description of John Wu’s conversion to Catholicism in 1937 and his early years as a Catholic. The very title of Wu’s autobiography points to his spiritual ideal which let humanity go beyond cultural particularities (be they Western, Chinese or other). John Wu found wisdom in China’s great traditions, i.e. Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism, pointing to their universal truths that come ultimately from, and are fulfilled in, Christ. The author of this contribution has searched for John Wu’s universal traits which go beyond any culture and which he called, metaphorically, a “ladder”. He has found a threefold ladder, i.e. that of Christian faith, that of human friendship and human and divine love, and that of natural law.</p> Zbigniew Wesołowski Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 21 45 10.18290/rh20689-2 Human Rights in Asia: The Case of China, Japan and North and South Korea <p>This article presents the issue of human rights in selected East Asian countries: China, South and North Korea and Japan. The Author looks at them from the European perspective and try to analyse the same issue in different political systems in order to present it through the universal prism of Asian values. From an ethical perspective, some groups of Asian politicians and scientists perceive Asian values as the equivalent of human rights. The Bangkok Declaration of 1993 was a major step because it was the first to include Asian values in an international status document, and it emphasised their existence and historical and cultural difference to human rights. Human rights as a product of Western civilisation do not include the achievements and philosophical thoughts of the Asia region. The Author believes that human rights are universal, not because they concern all people and are universally respected and recognised—as claimed by most Western experts—but because they have been included in the constitutions of many countries of the world (formal recognition). In this sense, we can speak of some universalism of human rights.</p> Lech Buczek Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 47 66 10.18290/rh20689-3 The Evolution of China’s Political System in the Reform and Opening-Up Era: Structures, Processes and Challenges. Part I: 1978-2002 <p>This paper examines the main features of the political system in the People’s Republic of China and the changes in the power structure of the Communist Party of China since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy. The author analyses the key features of the decision-making process, institutions, model of governance and leadership of the PRC during the eras of Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao and Xi Jinping. Since the beginning of the 1980s, China’s political system has undergone a transformation from one-man rule to a “collective leadership”, facing various challenges in governing the country and upholding the process of reform. The deepening of economic reforms, which began in the 1990s required a significant improvement in the state’s ability to govern and its adoption of a more flexible approach to the Party’s guiding ideology. As a result, China’s top decision-making bodies started to evolve into professional governing boards supported by highly educated cadres, experts and think-tanks. However, the end of Deng Xiaoping’s “strong-hand” rule led to the formation of a number of factions and interest groups within the Party’s establishment, each holding different views on the way, and the extent to which, such reforms should be pursued. During the last two decades, this factional struggle has exerted a negative influence on China’s economic and social transformation, as well as initiating the process of internal decay in the Party. Facing a growing number of challenges in China’s development and a lack of political unity within the CPC, the present leadership has strived to reorder the power structure and streamline the process of reform. Although it has managed to consolidate political power and partly eliminate some of the gravest problems, such as corruption, discord within the Party has prevailed and increased, leading to a&nbsp;visible decline in the reforms over the past few years, as well as to a growing number of voices demanding a&nbsp;thorough change in the political system. This paper concludes with remarks regarding the further evolution of the political system in the PRC, and possible developments in the Party’s leadership.</p> Józef Pawłowski Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 67 99 10.18290/rh20689-4 Constructing a Moral Person in the Analects 論語 and Mengzi 孟子 <p>In early Chinese philosophy, the concept of a unique individual separated from the outside world has no ontological basis. Every person is an open, interdependent construction, whose uniqueness can only be achieved and cannot be given. A person is an undetermined range and locus of experiences expressed through specific roles and relationships. In this article, the Author analyses such an understanding of the person in Confucian and Mencian thought. In Confucius’ philosophy, the <em>junzi</em> 君子 lives up to his status as long as he maintains <em>ren</em> 仁 relationships and displays proper emotions connected to <em>ren</em>. The author argues that, in the <em>Analects</em>, <em>ren</em> is a concept connected to the terms <em>shu </em>恕, <em>zhong </em>忠, <em>yi </em>義 and <em>li </em>禮<em>. Ren </em>may be interpreted as an ideal interaction that starts with an emphatic reaction towards another human being. Emphatic reactions, along with <em>zhong</em>—a&nbsp;sense of duty— is the basis for applying the situational moral norm <em>yi</em> and carrying it out according to <em>li</em>—the social norm. <em>Ren</em> behaviour is different for every person in every situation. It has to be learned and practised during the process of self-cultivation, <em>xiushen</em> 修身.</p> <p>Mencius’ moral theory is more complex, and concentrates on human nature and its features. According to this, human nature is <em>shan </em>善, commonly translated as ‘good,’ because every person has four dispositions—emotions for developing <em>ren, yi, li</em> and <em>zhi </em>智. <em>Ren</em> may be considered a&nbsp;virtue—it is not inborn, but has to be achieved and learned. Another skill required to be a sage was the understanding that every situation is unique, and that there is a right time to apply different norms—<em>shizhong</em> 詩中. Mencius’ thought is not simply an ethics of virtue, but it is also influenced by situational factors. Mencian moral behaviour is complex; not only does it require a deep understanding of oneself and the other, but also the use of all senses, sensitivity and creativity to deal with every situation in a different way. A sage, or a person who wants to become one, has to watch, listen, feel and understand every person and every situation. Moral cultivation in Mengzi’s thought is also a cultivation of the body’s <em>qi</em> 氣 (vigour or energy). Properly cultivated <em>qi</em> becomes <em>haoran zhi qi </em>浩然之氣 (overflowing <em>qi</em>) and enables one’s body to have the <em>zhi </em>志 (will) to follow its <em>ren</em> (heart/mind).</p> Katarzyna Pejda Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 101 117 10.18290/rh20689-5 “River Elegy” (Heshang): An Argument about Symbols, Interpretation of China’s Past and a Vision of Its Future <p><em>Heshang</em> (河殇, “River Elegy”), a TV miniseries (1989) directed by Xia Jun and produced due to the inspiration from various circles participating in the cultural debates (<em>wenhua re </em>文化热) of the 1980s, is one of the most important cultural texts belonging to identity discourse which deals with the issue of the controversy between Chinese and Western civilisation. During two periods of China’s opening up to the world, which contextualised the phenomenon of contemporary cultural nationalism (<em>Zhongguo wenhua minzuzhuyi </em>中国文化民族主义), an important scientific and social debate on the choice of paths for China’s development took place. Both in the 1920s and 1980s, this dispute concerned an assessment of the past and the fundamental dichotomy between tradition and modernity. The “River Elegy”, which synthesised, in a way, the discussion of the Chinese intellectual elites on this subject, is divided into six episodes: “In Search of a Dream” (<em>Xunmeng </em>寻梦), “Destiny” (<em>Mingyun </em>命运), “A Glimmering Light” (<em>Lingguang </em>灵光), “A New Epoch” (<em>Xinjiyuan </em>新纪元), “Sorrows and Crises” (<em>Youhuan </em>忧患) and “Azure” (<em>Weilanse </em>蔚蓝色). In the multi-level narrative built around the main story, documentary materials, interviews, discussions and numerous quotations, Chinese cultural emblems (e.g. the dragon) and expressive metaphors serve as the guiding thread intertwining the whole message: Old China can only rejuvenate its culture via modernisation and Westernisation. Its emotional reception is reinforced by the introduction of a model that polarises the colour and cardinal symbols of China. The two poles include the Yellow River, which epitomises the backward civilisation of feudal China, and the blue ocean, representing the modern, industrial West, and the Great Wall, as well as the Silk Road—symbols of isolation and openness. An analysis of <em>Heshang</em> shows that the original goal of strengthening the reformer camp was not achieved. The broadcasting of the series ended with a fierce political campaign, while the filmmakers themselves, instead of declaring their approval for the Enlightenment project, revealed their attachment to the idea of a Great China.</p> Lidia Kasarełło Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 119 138 10.18290/rh20689-6 Recovering a Lost Voice: Su Tong’s and Yu Hua’s Cathartic Fiction <p>The Cultural Revolution left deep scars in the memory of the Chinese and strongly influenced Chinese literature, especially those works written by the generation who lived to experience its excesses. Yu Hua’s novels <em>To Live</em> and <em>Chronicle of a Blood Merchant</em>, as well as Su Tong’s <em>Binu and the Great Wall of China</em>, address the problem of the pain and traumas associated with Chinese history. The writers draw upon the traditions of storytelling in an attempt to overcome those traumas by creating new, linear, coherent, and even optimistic, tales about the past experiences of ordinary people, who are given a chance to narrate them against the dominant historical discourse. Walter Ong’s theory of orality and Michel Foucault’s concept of counter-history open up new possibilities of analysis, and help understand these cathartic prose works. A&nbsp;careful reading of Su Tong’s and Yu Hua’s novels also raises the question of the authenticity of the trauma recovery presented, and exposes the risk of complicity with the hegemonic discourse of history in silencing and repressing the traumatic memories that they face.</p> Zofia Jakubów Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 139 155 10.18290/rh20689-7 Chinese Mothers’ Reflections on Value Systems and Social Norms Enacted in Fairy Tales: A Cultural Narrative Analysis <p>This study examined Chinese mothers’ views on children’s education in China and aimed to identify potential culturally specific perspectives and individual trends.&nbsp;Nine mothers from Beijing were asked to express, in the form of a narrative, their views on the stories that their children watched and read. The interviewees were also asked to assess the delivery, content, values, ideals and model behaviours that characterise Chinese and Western stories for children. The mothers also explained how the aspects of the stories that their children watch and read fit their own expectations and parenting strategies. The data gathered in the study allowed the Authors to create a&nbsp;list of Chinese and Western stories that Chinese children are in contact with, learn what values and model behaviours are expressed in those stories according to the children’s mothers, and how these mothers assess the values and model behaviours in the context of their own parental goals. Using exploratory factor analysis, the authors identified a number of categories that the Chinese mothers evoked. They discuss the cultural dimensions that characterise the Chinese mothers’ perspectives of Chinese&nbsp;and Western stories for children.&nbsp;</p> Arkadiusz Gut Joanna Afek Beata Kołodziej Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 157 183 10.18290/rh20689-8 Contemporary Chinese Policy Concerning Religion <p>The last forty years of Reform and Opening Up in China have brought many changes and corrections in the policies of the Chinese state towards religion. Those policies were incorporated into the overall state policy and recognised as an important part of the Party’s work. The theoretical basis for the state religious policy is the so-called “theory of religion with Chinese characteristics”. In 2015, Xi Jinping for the first time stated the need for “persisting in the Sinicisation of religion”. His particular understanding of “Sinicisation” applies not only to the foreign religions such as Islam or Christianity, but to indigenous Daoism as well, which implies that, in the modern official parlance of the PRC, the term “Sinicisation of religion” has a new meaning, different from the more traditional understandings of the word. In fact, it has been translated in English-language publications as the “Chinafication of religion”; an even more appropriate translation, however, would be the “PRC-isation of religion”, as the afore-mentioned “Sinicisation” most of all means obedience to the CCP’s rule and “adaptation to the needs of the socialist society”. This article outlines the evolution of the theory of religion with Chinese characteristics as it is understood and presented in official publications, and attempts to analyse the scope of the prescribed “Sinicisation of religion” in modern China.</p> Małgorzata Religa Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 185 206 10.18290/rh20689-9 The Esoteric Nature of Death Preparations in Taoism and Their Possible Sources <p>Stephen Eskildsen has analysed a corpus of texts belonging to the Taoist tradition of internal alchemy, paying special attention to near-death meditations. Taking Eskildsen’s conclusions as the starting point, the main purpose of this paper is to show the similarities between death preparation techniques in Taoism (“entering the womb”, “changing the dwelling place” and “repelling killer demons”) and the esoteric practices of Tibetan Buddhism (The Six Yogas of Nāropa). The subject was chosen, firstly, because some of them were omitted by Eskildsen, and secondly because those similarities seem to be interesting in the context of establishing the possible sources of Taoist meditations. An attempt at analysing the origins of both sets of practices, and the relationships between them, led to the conclusion that the influence of Indian esoteric ideas on Chinese Taoism is highly probable. The author also noted that the breathing exercises that constitute the basis of all of the techniques in question are prior Buddhist influences, and thus the independent development of these practices is also possible. Such independent development may be considered interesting, as both Chinese and Tibetan techniques are based on a similar notion of mystical physiology, which subsequently could suggest some kind of universality.</p> Ewa Paśnik-Tułowiecka Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 207 224 10.18290/rh20689-10 Seemingly Inconsistent: “Growing Southern Plants the Michurin Method” by Weronika Murek and Five Spice Street by Can Xue <p>The comparison of the works of the Chinese writer Can Xue and the Polish writer Weronika Murek allows us to notice the existing thematic and formal similarities between them. Despite the visible differences, the writers have many points in common—in their works both have given up the action line, unity of action and place, both reach for surrealism, absurdity, grotesque and paradox. The works of Can Xue and Murek prove the validity of the term world literature, which is sublimation of human spirit and in its deepest layer is common to all people, regardless of their origin, culture and language.</p> Katarzyna Sarek Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 225 237 10.18290/rh20689-11 Confucius’ Analects in a New Translation by Katarzyna Pejda (Confucius, Analects [Lunyu 論語]. Translation and studies by Katarzyna Pejda) Marcin Jacoby Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 239 248 10.18290/rh20689-12 Reply to the Review by Prof. Marcin Jacoby Katarzyna Pejda Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 248 254 10.18290/rh20689-13 From Letters to the Editorial Staff Redakcja RH Copyright (c) 2020 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 68 9 255 256