Roczniki Humanistyczne <p><strong><em>Roczniki Humanistyczne </em></strong><strong>('Annals of Arts')<em>&nbsp;</em></strong>is an academic journal of the humanities published by the Learned Society of the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin and the Faculty of Humanities of the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin. It has appeared without interruption since 1949.&nbsp;<br><em>Roczniki Humanistyczne </em>is a platform of exchange of ideas between scholars from Poland, East-Central and Eastern Europe, and other parts of the world in five areas of the humanities: literary studies, linguistics, history, art history, and musicology, as well as across these disciplines. &nbsp;<br><em>Roczniki Humanistyczne </em>publishes research articles, review articles, reviews, and short communications. Contributions are accepted in Polish, English, German, Dutch, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Ukrainian, Belarussian, and Russian. The language of contribution may vary depending on fascicle.&nbsp;</p> Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL & Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II – Wydział Nauk Humanistycznych en-US Roczniki Humanistyczne 0035-7707 Research on the Variabililty in Religious Folk Songs in Poland <p>This article discusses the variability in religious folk songs in Poland. The author examines concepts related to variability in folklorism, linguistics and ethnomusicology and gives an overview of pioneering ethnomusicological works, referring to such researchers as Adolf Chybiński, Julian Pulikowski and Jan Stęszewski. They recognised the need to juxtapose variants and noted many determinants, e.g. the regional factor. This variability in religious folk songs is described on the basis of the findings by Fr. Bolesław Bartkowski, Antoni Zoła and the works of the Musicology Institute at the Catholic University of Lublin. As a result, many areas of research have been identified, taking into account the presence of the religious repertoire in both the living tradition and printed sources. Researchers agree that there are limited opportunities for musical variability but have suggested looking for its causes and regularities. Nowadays, it is necessary to analyse the transformations in the religious repertoire due to the dynamic changes in its functioning.</p> Agata Kusto Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 9 23 10.18290/rh227012.1 Features of Folklore in the Religious Music of the Roman Catholic Tradition in Belarus <p>Religious folklore in Belarus exists on two levels: folklore sung directly in the homes and&nbsp;folklore sung in the church. “Home” folklore frequently permeates the church’s liturgical chants. The specificity of folklore performance in religious music can be traced through the text (the&nbsp;transformation of the literary text by dialectal and borrowed words), directly through the music (the&nbsp;adaptation of variation elements to the melody, folk ornamentations, very slow tempo, etc.), and through the manner of performance (breaking up the sung phrase, chest resonance singing, transposition of the key, etc.). The text of this article describes the specificity of the performance of&nbsp;religious works in Belarus, both liturgical and domestic. It distinguishes and describes the methods of performance, and shows their similarities based on the examples of specific pieces of&nbsp;music. The relationship between folklore and church art is shown not only by their general features, but&nbsp;also by their interrelationships. It manifests itself in the general properties of the genre, the&nbsp;means of&nbsp;expression, and the singing style, which consists of a synthesis of words and melodies, modal-melodic structures, phrasing dictated by breathing, a unity of time and rhythm, and elements of&nbsp;polyphony (heterophony).</p> Veranika Ramanenkava Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 25 33 10.18290/rh227012.2 Congregational Hymns in Folk Memory <p>Congregational hymns are usually composed by priests or cantors. Hymns are transmitted via congregational singing and they often become the anonymous common property of the whole congregation. In Hungarian villages many congregational hymns were adapted by the local people. These hymns were sung in the same “local” style as the folksongs (with free rhythm and rich ornamentation). Hungarian musicologists have collected hymns from the 16<sup>th</sup> and 17<sup>th</sup> centuries in rural areas. During the process of assimilation, the melodies were slightly, or sometimes significantly, modified. This occurred as a consequence of the tonal difference between the&nbsp;hymns, composed mostly in major-minor tonalities, and Hungarian folksongs, which predominantly use old modes. The results of this collection of folklorized hymns were used in the compilation of a new hymnal in which the editors published the contemporary folk versions of many old hymns.</p> Ágnes Watzatka Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 35 51 10.18290/rh227012.3 Calvarian Singing in the Written and Oral Tradition in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska and Kalwaria Pacławska in the Context of Their Perception in Selected Parishes of South-Eastern Poland <p>The aim of this article is to characterise the Calvarian singing in the written and oral tradition in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska and Kalwaria Pacławska in the context of their perception in selected parishes of south-eastern Poland. Pilgrimages to these&nbsp;Calvaries&nbsp;fostered the&nbsp;development of local singing. A comparative analysis has shown that, by coming into contact with the distinctiveness of pilgrimage performances, local singing became susceptible to their influence, and thanks to the perception of those believers visiting the Calvaries, such local singing spread to other regions of the country. The repertoire practised by pilgrims in their parishes was combined with local religious songs, becoming known as “Calvarian singing,” with rich melodies and content (we can also find&nbsp;<em>contrafacta</em>&nbsp;among them). The audio collection of the Music Archive of Religious Folklore of KUL contains recordings of 47 incipits of Calvarian singing from south-eastern Poland. Research has proved that, as a documented oral tradition, they show a variability (i.e. various types of transformations of their songbook notations) which is often regionally determined. Calvarian songbooks confirm the coexistence of written and oral traditions. It has been shown that songbook notation is identical to the oral tradition and it is merely a printed source functioning in parallel with the&nbsp;practice of this repertoire.</p> Kinga Strycharz-Bogacz Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 53 67 10.18290/rh227012.4 Transformations in the Performance of Folk Religious Chants from Wąwolnica (1970-2020): Confronting Archival Materials with Recent Field Research <p>This article addresses the issue of the performance and variability of folk religious chants from Wąwolnica in Lublin Region from the perspective of transformations, the tracing of which has been made possible by&nbsp;comparing contemporary research expeditions (2019-2020) to the results of archival research from 1970. A selection of the most representative examples of the specifics of a community’s singing is presented in the form of musical transcriptions and by the use of a graphic record of&nbsp;the&nbsp;performance of the songs, acquired through archival and contemporary recordings. The&nbsp;transformations of the chant repertoire, the acceleration of the tempo of some performances, and the reduction of vocal ornamentation, while retaining the features of the melodic-rhythmic variation inherent in the local performance tradition, appear to be characteristic of such singing.</p> Alicja Habza Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 69 85 10.18290/rh227012.5 The Place and Function of Korovai Songs and Couplets in the Wedding Rituals of Podlachia <p>The aim of this article is to discuss the function and place of <em>korovai</em> songs and couplets in&nbsp;the traditional wedding rituals of Podlachia. This analysis is based on the songs and couplets accompanying the preparation and sharing of the <em>korovai</em> ([wedding-cake]; Pol. <em>korowaj</em>; Ukr. коровай [<em>korovai</em>], Russ. before the 1956: коровай [<em>korovai</em>], modern: каравай [<em>karavai</em>], Old East Slavic: караваи [<em>karavai</em>]), and which were taken from the volumes entitled <em>Podlasie</em> [Podlachia] and <em>Lubelskie</em> [Lublin Region] that were published in the series “Polska pieśń i muzyka ludowa” [Polish Folk Songs and Music], from selected volumes of Oskar Kolberg’s <em>Dzieła wszystkie</em> [The Complete Works] and the works of various documentalists and researchers of the eastern cultural borderland. The repertoire of songs was arranged according to the scenario of the traditional wedding ceremony. When choosing the sample texts, the authors took their subjects into consideration and analysed them in terms of language and culture, but not that of music. On&nbsp;this basis, they attempted to determine the function of the <em>korovai </em>songs and couplets.</p> <p>The analysis undertaken confirms that not only is the <em>korovai</em> one of the cultural phenomena of Podlachia, but also an important component of the identity of its inhabitants. The songs related to the specific role of the <em>korovai</em> in the wedding ritual are characterised by both an archaic and&nbsp;unique character, and a rich symbolic content. They fulfil magical, scenario and instructional functions.</p> Beata Maksymiuk-Pacek Joanna Szadura Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 87 104 10.18290/rh227012.6 The Nativity Scene with Dolls from the Area of Padew Narodowa – a Traditional Show and Its Musical Repertoire <p>This article presents and analyses the genesis, performance context and musical repertoire of&nbsp;<em>The Nativity Scene with Dolls</em>. The phonic material analysed, deposited in The Archive of Music Religious Folklore (AMFR) at the Institute of Musicology of the John Paul II Catholic University of&nbsp;Lublin (KUL), was registered in 1974 in Padew Narodowa (Rzeszow Region), and research in the form of a field interview was repeated in 2022. The musical analyses include 27 pieces for which musical transcriptions were made. A detailed description and interpretation of <em>The Nativity Scene with Dolls</em> may be key to understanding local communities. The show reflects the folk world of&nbsp;values, prohibitions and orders, of attitudes to religious and ethnic minorities, to issues of the state, the perception of certain professions, etc. It also shows the image of the world of small communities, elevated to the symbolic level of acting and music.</p> Tomasz Rokosz Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 105 120 10.18290/rh227012.7 From Dhol-Tasha to Tassa: Tradition and Transformation in Indian Trinidadian Tassa Drumming <p>The North Indian dhol-tasha drumming tradition was spread globally by the British indentureship system, which began in the 1830s and sent millions of men, women, and children to work in&nbsp;agricultural and industrial colonies around the world. While distinct dhol-tasha variants emerged in many places where indentured laborers settled, the most vibrant of these is tassa drumming in&nbsp;the southern Caribbean country of Trinidad and Tobago. While maintaining obvious and measurable links with its Indian forebears, tassa has undergone significant transformations in instrument construction, repertoire and performance practice. The essay concludes by arguing that such innovations suggest tassa is not a mere example of cultural survival, but a dynamic art form grounded in a distinct Indian aesthetic yet also thoroughly Caribbean in its diasporic creativity.</p> Christopher Ballengee Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 121 136 10.18290/rh227012.8 Musical Otherwordly Beings: Cultural Transformations of Ritual Anti-Music and Anti-Instruments <p>This article refers to the notions of otherworldly beings, both good and bad, playing on various musical instruments, which have been a significant part of European culture from the Middle Ages through to the present day. This phenomenon of a ritual uproar has been long documented in folk culture, mainly from the 19th century, performed on so-called anti-instruments and termed anti-music.</p> <p>Nowadays in Kashubia, in the era of stage folklore, the old ritual anti-instruments, i.e. the devil’s violin and burczybas, have become percussion instruments in Kashubian folk bands. They play an additional, or perhaps a basic, function, as a sign of the regional identity of the Kashubians. The subject of music-making supernatural beings has also become fashionable in contemporary folk art in Poland. Music-making angels are often presented, but devils too, with various instruments, including folk ones. The disappearance of the traditional belief in the folk metaphysical vision of the world has made it possible to “equip” devils with those anti-instruments that had long been a human weapon against them. In folk art, images of this kind took on a grotesque character.</p> Zbigniew Jerzy Przerembski Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 137 149 10.18290/rh227012.9 Krzysztof Trebunia-Tutka’s Numerical Notation for Learning the Violin in Podhale: Understanding the Model <p>A numerical notation was recently published for the learning of fiddle melodies in the Podhale region. This work – containing material from the history of the region, as well as music writing and numerical notation – stands out, in that its author (Trebunia-Tutka) is a local musician. Why and for whom is he writing? As a teacher, he is writing first and foremost for learners of music. Thus, this publication offers an opportunity to reflect upon the relationship between writing and orality in Podhale music. Comparing recordings of performances with the numerical notation of the melody gives insights into the author’s own choices in writing, and allows for the distinguishing of standards in musical variations. Therefore, this analysis may shed some light on musical grammar. This paper explores the hypothesis that the numerical notation, as a simplified version of the melody, gives reason to think that its author has a “template” in mind (Lortat-Jacob 93-111).</p> Marie Renaudin Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 151 167 10.18290/rh227012.10 Between the Old and the New Homeland: Dulcimer Players Musical Activity in Lower Silesia in the 1950s <p>In this article, I would like to describe the musical activity of the dulcimer players who moved to Lower Silesia after World War II as a result of being expelled from the pre-war Polish eastern borderlands: the Vilnius region and East Galicia. Being new settlers in the so called Recovered Territories, surrounded by people who came both from their native and other regions, dulcimer players tried to continue their musical activity. I examine their different ways of adapting to a new situation and new place of residence, by building new dulcimers, joining interregional folk bands, attempting individual music-making based on the performance of dance music from their own region, or establishing an ensemble consisting of high school students. In my article, I draw on examples from archival recordings from the 1950s made by Józef Majchrzak (1909-1985), the Polish folklorist, musicologist and radio editor who worked for Polish Radio Wrocław.</p> Gabriela Gacek Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 169 185 10.18290/rh227012.11 The Transformation of the Musical Parctice of Rzeszowiak Bands from the Perspective of Marcia Herndon’s Concept of Change Potential <p>This article is devoted to the changes in the musical practice of Rzeszowiak (south-eastern Poland) bands, analysed from the perspective of Marcia Herndon’s concept of the potential of change. The basic concepts are process, potential, and an internal dynamic equilibrium. The factors determining this equilibrium are cognition, time/motion, patterned sound and context/performance. The research material consists of interviews conducted by associates of the Museum of Folk Culture in Kolbuszowa in 2014-2016 in the Rzeszów region.</p> Tomasz Nowak Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 187 198 10.18290/rh227012.12 Polish Folklore and Religious Songs as Inspiration in Wojciech Kilar’s Piano Concertos <p>The aim of this article is to show the relationship between the musical material and the aesthetic layer of Wojciech Kilar’s piano concertos and the Polish folklore tradition, as well as that of Polish religious songs and liturgical chants. Kilar’s two concertos for solo piano and the orchestra that are analysed in this article were composed in 1996-1997 and 2011, respectively. The folklore influences are most evident in <em>Piano Concerto No. 2</em> which alludes to songs from the Podhale region. On the other hand, in both of Kilar’s concertos there are strong links to Polish religious songs and liturgical singing, appearing both as a musical quotation and (more often) as merely a reminiscence. In the further part of this article, referring to Mieczysław Tomaszewski’s methodology, the four stylistic idioms that make up the composer’s individual musical style in the third period of his creative activity are discussed. These are religious music, neoromanticism, folklore and postminimalism.</p> Joanna Miklaszewska Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 199 218 10.18290/rh227012.13 From the Earliest Origins to Contemporary Times: The Evolution of Instrumental Folklore in the Silesian Beskids (the Example of Trójwieś) <p>Nowadays, in folk culture, various changes can be observed happening. These are also occurring in the musical folklore of the Silesian Beskids. This region has a rich tradition of developing musical repertoires, performance styles and folk instruments. The guardians of this tradition are musicians, frequently local ones, who pass it on to younger generations. They educate the younger Beskid musicians and ensure that the tradition is kept alive. At the same time, the repertoire and the construction of folk instruments are changing. This is taking place for creative, but also pragmatic and commercial, reasons, including, for example, the use of polycarbonate reeds in the Silesian bagpipe.</p> Magdalena Szyndler Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 219 230 10.18290/rh227012.14 The Transformation of Jewish Musical Traditions and the Evolution of Jewish Musical Institutions Based on the Example of Pre-War Galicia <p>In this article, the transformation of Jewish musical traditions are traced in relation to those of&nbsp;traditional Jewish musical institutions operating in the 50 years before the outbreak of World War II in Galicia. The basis for this study is primarily source material from the interwar period. The&nbsp;author discusses the roles and functions of traditional Jewish musicians such as the chazzan (cantor), the folk singer and the folk instrumentalist (klezmer), as well as showing their new roles and ways of functioning on the eve of the outbreak of World War II. Afterwards, the impact of these institutional transformations on the musical repertoire of Galician Jews is presented.</p> <p>This text sketches out the continuum of the Jewish musical tradition from the end of the 19th century to the second half of the 20th century and describes the smooth transition between the so-called folk music and contemporary Jewish art and popular music. At the centre of all of these changes stands the human being – the creator, performer and recipient of the arts of chazzanut, folk songs and instrumental music, and the main cause of the changes occurring within this “human-organised sound”.</p> Sylwia Jakubczyk-Ślęczka Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 231 250 10.18290/rh227012.15 The Sound and Musical Landscape of a Non-Existent City: Contributions to Research on Sound Archaeology Based on the Example of the Pre-War Jewish Quarter in Lublin <p>Prior to the Second World War, the multicultural city of Lublin was an important centre of Jewish culture. Of that period, only <em>Brama Grodzka </em>[City Gate], which used to be the passageway between the Christian and the Jewish parts of Lublin, has “survived”. Nowadays, it houses <em>Brama Grodzka – Teatr NN </em>[City Gate – Theatre NN], a cultural centre which provides display areas for commemorative exhibitions and organises various cultural and educational events. In the 1990s, a permanent project on the everyday pre-war life in the “Jewish city” (as well as the Jews’ situation during the time of the German occupation) was launched here. The collected source material was integrated into commemorative exhibitions. These projects show that the past of non-existent Jewish quarters can be reconstructed not only visually, but also acoustically, making it possible to recreate the ethnomusical landscape of the city that has ceased to exist. This article presents the sound and musical landscape of the city of Lublin and its vicinity, using the example of the Jewish quarter of Lublin, taking into account traditional music and its various transformations.</p> Joanna Posłuszna Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 251 264 10.18290/rh227012.16 Folk and National Dances in the Work of Zofia Kwaśnicowa <p>Zofia Kwaśnicowa was one of the most outstanding teachers of the Central Institute of Physical Education, renamed the Józef Piłsudski Academy of Physical Education in Warsaw in 1938. For the needs of both the physical education staff and of general education, she developed a methodology of&nbsp;teaching folk dances and music and movement exercises. This was preceded by four years of&nbsp;ethnographic research (1931-1935), covering almost the entire area of the Second Polish Republic. She acquired original dance folklore from many regions which was then introduced into school curricula in the interwar period and was continually taught until the end of the 1970s. The&nbsp;aim of this work is to present the merits of Zofia Kwaśnicowa in the development of the methodology of teaching folk and national dances, as well as music and movement classes for the needs of&nbsp;education. Research methods from the field of historical sciences have been used, primarily critical analysis and the interpretation of documents, primary and secondary sources, as well as the historical interpretation of facts.</p> Barbara Głasek Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 265 276 10.18290/rh227012.17 Selected Reflections on E.E. Gordon’s Audiation <p>This article defines the concept of musical audiation and attempts to confront Edwin&nbsp;E. Gordon’s theory of music learning with pedagogical, psychological and philosophical thought concerning the&nbsp;issues discussed. The main aim of the author’s considerations is to reflect upon the category of&nbsp;audiation, understood as a kind of musical thinking, and which is the basis for musical talent and achievements and considered to be a key concept and pillar in the theory of learning music by the American music educator and psychologist E. E. Gordon. Audiation is considered in several contexts: definitional and syntactical, the teaching and learning of music, the parallels between learning music and language, and also in the context of the operationalisation of musical patterns (rhythm and/or tonal) as the basic condition for the development of human musical thinking. E.&nbsp;E. Gordon’s theory of music learning has been present in the Polish educational market for over 20&nbsp;years and, due to the need for an in-depth theoretical analysis of this theory in terms of its formalities and functionality in the development of research, the category of music audiation has now become the subject of such analyses.</p> Maciej Kołodziejski Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 277 290 10.18290/rh227012.18 “Does religious music cultivate Christian values in Europe?” The International Academic Conference organized by the Department of Research on Monody and Religious Polyphony at KUL (May 11, 2022) Michał Jędrzejski Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 291 293 10.18290/rh227012.19 In the Circle of Research on Traditional Music Łukasz Smoluch Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 295 298 10.18290/rh227012.20 Multifaceted Inspirations from Musical Folklore Aya Al Azab-Ruszowska Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 299 302 10.18290/rh227012.21 Songs Are the Core of the Rite: Ethnocultural Journeys through the Present Day Agata Kusto Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 70 12 303 308 10.18290/rh227012.22