Roczniki Humanistyczne https://ojs.tnkul.pl/index.php/rh <p><strong><em>Roczniki Humanistyczne </em></strong><strong>(Annals of Arts)<em>&nbsp;</em></strong>is an academic journal of the humanities published by the Learned Society of the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin and the Faculty of Humanities of the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin. It has appeared without interruption since 1949.<br><em>Roczniki Humanistyczne </em>is a platform of exchange of ideas in four areas of the humanities – literary studies, linguistics, history, and art history – as well as across these disciplines.<br><em>Roczniki Humanistyczne </em>publishes research articles, review articles, reviews, and short communications. Contributions are accepted in Polish, English, German, Dutch, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, and&nbsp;Ukrainian. The language of contribution may vary depending on fascicle.</p> Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL & Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II – Wydział Nauk Humanistycznych en-US Roczniki Humanistyczne 0035-7707 Pious Christian Women Awaiting the Resurrection: Images of Women in Roman Catacomb Painting https://ojs.tnkul.pl/index.php/rh/article/view/17452 <p>In Roman catacomb paintings, the preferred form of self-presentation, and undoubtedly also of commemoration, of deceased Christian women, was to present them in a praying position – near the <em>loculi</em> and <em>arcosolia</em>, at almost every step of the way, one could encounter female figures (over time more and more individual and expressive), who prayed by raising their hands upwards or extending them in imitation of Jesus’s posture on the cross. The prayer gesture, also displayed in portraits in the form of busts, was to convince people of the piety (<em>pietas</em>) that characterised these deceased Christian women during their lives, and which allowed them to hope that thanks, to Christ-the Good Shepherd they would be resurrected and achieve eternal life, where they would continue in their incessant prayer (praise? thanksgiving? pleading?).</p> Bożena Iwaszkiewicz-Wronikowska Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 70 4 7 34 10.18290/rh22704.1 Between the Fear of Death and Hope for Eternal Life: On the Symbolism of Several Funerary Vestments from the Late 18th and 19th Centuries https://ojs.tnkul.pl/index.php/rh/article/view/17453 <p>Very few funerary vestments that are black in colour have survived to our times. They were excluded from use in the liturgy following the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, and are rare today, which makes them an even more valuable testimony of Old Polish funerary culture. Four Polish chasubles, dating from the end of the 18th and 19th centuries, had a special role among the striking examples of the Baroque theatrum, in which motifs embroidered with coloured threads emerging from the black background played a special role. Two are in the collection of&nbsp;the Diocesan Museum in Siedlce. The others are housed in the Lviv Museum of the History of&nbsp;Religion and in the parish in Górka Kościelnicka near Kraków. They have a rich iconography. In addition to motifs related to the passion of Christ (the cross and instruments of the passion), they depict symbols of death and transience (skulls, skeletons, coffins, hourglasses, clocks), as&nbsp;well as souls in purgatory, reminding us that the fruits derived from holy Mass – remembrances of&nbsp;Christ’s bloody sacrifice – are also experienced by the dead. The vestments are complemented by Latin maxims containing excerpts from the <em>Dies Irae</em> hymn. The symbolism of the funerary vestments was not only subordinated to proclaiming the triumph of death, but also expressed the&nbsp;hope of salvation and eternal life.</p> Christine Moisan-Jablonski Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 70 4 35 66 10.18290/rh22704.2 New Observations on the Tomb of Queen Hedwig of Anjou in the Cathedral on Wawel Hill in Krakow https://ojs.tnkul.pl/index.php/rh/article/view/17454 <p>In 1900, the Bishop of Krakow, Jan Puzyna, decided to erect a sarcophagus for the remains of&nbsp;Queen Hedwig of Anjou (d.&nbsp;1399). Its founder, Count Karol Lanckoroński, gave the commission to Antoni Madeyski, a sculptor active in Rome, while the technical matters and iconographic programme of the work were entrusted to Marian Sokołowski, a professor of art history at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. Madeyski recorded the progress of his work in photographs which reveal that initially an inscription had run along the edges of the top slab, which was obliterated after the assembly of the tomb in the cathedral. This change may have been caused by a – now long forgotten – dispute about the extent of the contribution from each of the&nbsp;key figures involved in&nbsp;the undertaking. Or perhaps the foundation inscription on the top slab, above a short text related to the queen, was deemed inappropriate in view of the plans to resume efforts for her beatification. The location of the sarcophagus was conditioned by a number of factors, one of which was the proximity of the shrine of St Stanislaus, and was possibly intended to concentrate the cults of the local saints in the area of the intersection of the naves. The forms of the tomb had no relation to&nbsp;the existing monuments of the monarchs of the Piast or Jagiellonian dynasties in the cathedral; in fact, local tradition was ignored, since the work was carved of white not red stone and&nbsp;did not have a canopy. Madeyski’s immediate model was the tomb of&nbsp;Ilaria del Carretto in&nbsp;Lucca, probably indicated to him by Lanckoroński who was very fond of Italian Quattrocento art. Of key importance must also have been the fact that both women had died in childbirth. A&nbsp;cenotaph to King Ladislaus&nbsp;III of Varna, carried out by Madeyski in 1902-1906, was modelled on the monument to Gaston de Foix in Milan. Thus, in both cases the sculptor referred to ‘icons’ of historical literature and nineteenth-century popular culture, bringing the history of Poland into the orbit of European history. Hedwig of Anjou, similar to Ilaria del Carretto, is presented as a&nbsp;paragon of sacrifice for religion and marital fidelity. Ladislaus&nbsp;III, in turn, killed in the battle of&nbsp;&nbsp;Varna in 1444, just like de Foix, a French commander who fell in the battle of Ravenna in 1512, was regarded as an exemplar of sacrifice for his homeland.</p> Marek Walczak Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 70 4 67 97 10.18290/rh22704.3 The Art of Miss Irma Stern: Ugliness as a Cult https://ojs.tnkul.pl/index.php/rh/article/view/17455 <p>The purpose of this article is to present the life and work of a well-known and celebrated South African painter of German-Jewish origin – Irma Stern (1894-1966). The artist was one of&nbsp;the first painters from South Africa whose works fitted well into the expressionist trend. Irma Stern’s artistic development was influenced by numerous trips to Europe and her studies at German art schools and academies. Her African roots were another important source of inspiration for her. Stern, who travelled all over Africa (including South Africa, Zanzibar and Congo) created numerous portraits of its indigenous peoples surrounded by wild nature. In her works, she most often presented an idyllic vision of the African continent, but one whirling with life and&nbsp;dynamism, thus reflecting her personal views of Africa as a real ‘paradise.’</p> Aneta Pawłowska Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 70 4 99 121 10.18290/rh22704.4 The Cannons of the Elector of Saxony in the Fortress of Rosas (16th-17th Century): Barzoque and the 36-Pounders https://ojs.tnkul.pl/index.php/rh/article/view/17456 <p>This article identifies three pieces of artillery, especially the <em>Barzoque</em> that served in&nbsp; defence of the fortress of Rosas (Spain) during the 16th and 17th centuries. The cannons are part of the spoils of war that Spanish imperial troops took from the protestant princes following the defeat of the Schmalkaldic League at the battle of Mühlberg in 1547. This article is based mainly on primary sources, especially two documents found in the General Archive of Simancas and the unpublished treatise of Captain Diego de Prado y Tovar, who saw the cannons on his visit to Rosas and whose drawings give a clear idea of the <em>Barzoque</em>’s mouldings.</p> Pablo de la Fuente de Pablo Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 70 4 123 136 10.18290/rh22704.5 Liturgical Paraments Donated by Duchess Barbara Franciszka Radziwiłł, née Zawisza Kieżgajłło (1690-1770) in the Monastery of the Dominican Order in Lublin https://ojs.tnkul.pl/index.php/rh/article/view/17457 <p>The liturgical paraments donated by Duchess Barbara Franciszka Radziwiłł (née Zawisza Kieżgajłło), the wife of the voivode of Nowogródek, which are stored in the Monastery of the Dominican Order in Lublin, include a few high-quality liturgical garments not previously mentioned in any records. An impressive handwritten inscription on the blue chasuble identifies the donor.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The paraments donated to the glory of the Wood of the Holy Cross have inspired an inquiry into the patronage of Duchess Barbara Franciszka Radziwiłł, including her interests in art and handicraft. The liturgical items donated by the Duchess, with exquisite embroideries made on costly silk damask fabric, represent the refined craftsmanship of the first half of the 18th century, probably of the Polish royal court manufactory or embroidery workshop.</p> <p>Barbara Zawisza, the wife of Duke Mikołaj Faustyn Radziwiłł, voivode of Nowogródek, was&nbsp;a public figure in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and one of the most active female members of the Radziwiłł family on the political scene. That activity is evidenced, inter alia, by representative portraits of Duchess Barbara Franciszka Radziwiłł, depicting her as a significant figure in the history of the Radziwiłł family, Grand Mistress of the Order of the Starry Cross, and a humanist. A well-educated creator of intellectual life dedicated to her homeland and family, she successfully took care of the property matters of the Radziwiłł estates in&nbsp;Ukraine ‒ today’s Belarus and Lithuania. The great estate in Berdychiv inherited by Barbara Radziwiłł distinguished the Radziwiłł family line referred to by historians as the “Berdychiv line”.</p> Ewa Pieczykolan Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 70 4 137 162 10.18290/rh22704.6 Paintings by Stanisław Żukowski (1873-1944) in the State and Private Art Collections of the Russian Empire https://ojs.tnkul.pl/index.php/rh/article/view/17458 <p>During the stay of the Polish painter Stanisław Żukowski (1873-1944) in Russia (1892-1923), his work was able to develop thanks to the help of many patrons and art collectors. The second half of&nbsp;the 19th century and early 20th were defined as the “golden age of Russian patronage,” a&nbsp;time when museums and galleries of European importance were established. In the 20th century, but still during the time of the Russian Empire, Stanisław Żukowski’s paintings appeared in&nbsp;Russian private and state galleries. Its patrons and collectors included representatives of the aristocratic families of the Russian Empire, as well as representatives of the merchant, industrial and banking circles of Russian society at that time.</p> Iryna Syzonenko Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 70 4 163 183 10.18290/rh22704.7 Bodies and Maps: Early Modern Personifications of the Continents, ed. Mar-yanne Cline Horowitz i Louise Arizzoli https://ojs.tnkul.pl/index.php/rh/article/view/17459 Christine Moisan-Jablonski Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Humanistyczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 70 4 185 191 10.18290/rh22704.8