Polish Adaptation of the Occupational Hardiness Questionnaire (OHQ)

Keywords: occupational hardiness, Polish adaptation, social and service professions, confirmatory factor analysis, construct validity, reliability


Occupational hardiness is a pattern of attitudes and strategies that stimulates an individual to perceive stressful work situations as controllable, worth dealing with, and contributing to professional development. One of the popular tools in the world to measure this construct is the Occupational Hardiness Questionnaire (OHQ) developed by Moreno-Jiménez et al. It has a three-factor structure, proven construct validity, and good internal consistency. The overarching aim of the study was to prepare a Polish adaptation of the OHQ based on a sample of Polish employees working in health care, education and science, and customer service. The questionnaire-based research was conducted in two stages, with two independent samples. The first study was cross-sectional. Their results were used to estimate the factorial validity, construct validity, and internal consistency of the adapted tool. Participants in the first study were 1,212 employees (originally 1,315) of health care (n = 400), education and science (n = 410), and customer service (n = 400) sectors. The second study, which was longitudinal in nature, included two measurements and was used to estimate test–retest reliability. Of the 400 participants (employees of customer service), 205 completed the questionnaire in two measurements. The Polish version of the OHQ has a three-factor structure, confirmed construct validity and good internal consistency. The Polish version of the OHQ is ideal for scientific research, but can also be used in practice: in career counseling, recruitment, selection, or screening.


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