The Fourth Meditation and Cartesian Circles

Keywords: Fourth Mediation, external circle, internal circle


We offer a novel interpretation of the argumentative role that Meditation IV plays within the whole of the Meditations. This new interpretation clarifies several otherwise head-scratching claims that Descartes makes about Meditation IV, and it fully exonerates the Fourth Meditation from either raising or exacerbating Descartes’ circularity problems.

Author Biographies

C. P. Ragland, Saint Louis University, USA

C. P. Ragland is a professor who chairs the Philosophy Department at Saint Louis University, USA

Everett Fulmer, Loyola University, New Orleans, USA

Everett Fulmer is a visiting assistant professor at the Department of Philosophy at Loyola University, New Orleans, USA


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