Roczniki Filozoficzne <p><strong>Roczniki Filozoficzne (The </strong><strong>Annals of Philosophy)</strong> is the major journal of the Faculty of Philosophy at The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin. It is one of the oldest philosophical journals in Poland (since 1948). It is published four times per year in both the online and traditional ways. The journal aims to publish the best original research papers in philosophy, as well as translations, reviews, accounts and polemics.</p> Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL & Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II en-US Roczniki Filozoficzne 2450-002X Is It Possible to Found a Moral Theory on the Emotion of Admiration? <p>The article focuses on the exemplarism of Linda Zagzebski (2017). Zagzebski proposes to found an ethical theory on the emotion of admiration. In the first explanatory part, I present the central assumptions of exemplarism. I explain what constitutes a moral exemplar; the role admi­ra­tion plays in Zagzebski’s theory; and the unique nature of her approach. In the second, critical part, I highlight the strong and weak sides of exemplarist ethical theory. I refer to the rich empi­rical data that confirms the importance of modeling in moral education as well as the role of positive emotions in moral development. I underline the practical dimension of Zagzebski’s approach. The weakness of exemplarism lies in its overly strong emphasis on admiration as the foundation of moral theory. This is the case for the following two reasons. Firstly, the kind of admiration that Zagzebski has in mind is difficult to define and distinguish from other similar emotions that do not deserve to be regarded as foundational for an ethical theory. Secondly, it seems that it is not admiration that comes first, followed by the moral values that we discover through this emotion, but rather that admiration is secondary, constituting a response to the values that we already recognize as admirable.</p> Natasza Szutta Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 9 33 10.18290/rf22703.1 Non-Culpable Feeling of Guilt and Illusory Innocence <p>The analyses conducted in this paper are an attempt to sort out the possible relations between guilt and feeling of guilt. The problem of feeling guilt turns out to be complicated due to the ambiguous relationship with actual culpability. Guilt is not necessarily preceded by the execution of an action, for which we might blame someone, and the belief that one is guilty is not the same as actual guilt. When the guilty claim to be innocent, it can be the result of both a misunderstanding of moral standards and a loss of moral sensitivity often combined with a belief in their own impunity. Wrong judgment is also one of the reasons why the innocent claim to be guilty. The innocent also feel guilty for causing evil of which they were only involuntary, physical makers, or over which, through an unfortunate coincidence, they seemed to have only a minimal and ineligible influence.</p> Barbara Chyrowicz Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 35 64 10.18290/rf22703.2 The Paradox of Fiction: A Critical Review of the Main Theories <p>The subject of the article is the paradox of fiction. I present the most important attempts to explain and solve it. I argue that this paradox results from the assumption that an emotional response requires the belief that something is really there. This belief is not necessary at all — someone can be afraid that <em>p</em>, and at the same time not have a strong belief that <em>p</em>. It is enough to&nbsp;have a specific thought. I defend the thesis that our emotional reactions are mediated by the mind and its representational and content-related equipment. Due to the modest literature on this topic in Polish, the article was written in the author’s native language. The article is&nbsp;therefore educational and, above all, popularizing.</p> Andrzej Dąbrowski Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 65 84 10.18290/rf22703.3 Gaga Movement Language as an Expression of Hidden Dynamics of Emotions <p>In the research on emotions in dance, scientists focus mainly on their motor expression. This article deals with the mental conceptualization of emotions in a specific movement practice, the Gaga language of movement, created by an Israeli choreographer — Ohad Naharin. The language is based on movement interpretation of verbal instructions during dance improvisation. The verbal communication system plays an important role in Gaga’s practice. Emotions in movement function implicitly and are an important element of working with the movement and the bodies of&nbsp;dancers. The phenomenological considerations of Edmund Husserl and Marice Merleau-Ponty on the subject of the body, which also influenced the contemporary concept of embodied cognition, is an important factor in considering the functioning of emotions in the Gaga language. The&nbsp;key issue in analyzing the functioning of emotions in the language of the Gaga movement is&nbsp;the concept of dynamics from a phenomenological and linguistic perspective. The purpose of this article is to show that: 1) emotions, although they do not appear directly in Gaga’s instructions, are an important part of a dancer’s creative work; 2) their functioning, understanding and motor interpretation is based on the metaphorical understanding of various aspects of dynamics; 3) the phenomenological analysis of the body are essential to understand the functioning of&nbsp;emotions during dance.</p> Paulina Zarębska Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 85 107 10.18290/rf22703.4 Towards a Better Understanding of Emotions: The Impact of Philosophizing with Children on Their Emotion Comprehension – A Review of Developmental Studies <p>The article discusses Philosophy for Children (P4C) in the context of understanding emotions. First, we present the origins of Philosophy for Children as a pedagogical method designed to support critical thinking, and its subsequent evolution into a research tool based on psychological interventions. We then show how P4C can be applied in research on children’s understanding of&nbsp;emotions. We argue that not only does P4C serve to build knowledge and improve cognitive abilities, but also promotes understanding of affective phenomena. We show that the benefits of&nbsp;philosophizing about emotions are being observed in increasingly younger children. We point out that P4C has only recently been used for supporting the development of emotion comprehension, and that research using P4C interventions with preschoolers is also a recent development. We believe both of these to result from a change over the recent decades in how the child’s mind is conceptualized in developmental psychology.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jakub Janczura Anna Karczmarczyk Arkadiusz Gut Robert Mirski Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 109 139 10.18290/rf22703.5 On Biomorphic Benevolence to Nature <p>Edward Osborne Wilson formulated the biophilia hypothesis according to which biophilia is a&nbsp;tendency to focus on life and life-like processes. The status of this hypothesis is controversial among the natural, social and environmental sciences as well as in environmental ethics. On the methodological level, among other things, the charge of non-falsifiability is made; ecological ethicists criticize the hypothesis for its anthropocentric implications. In this article, we propose a&nbsp;philosophical interpretation of biophilia as a form of biomorphism, according to which the concept of&nbsp;substantive being, values and norms of morality are based on the paradigm of living being.</p> Anna Dutkowska Anna Głowik Zbigniew Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 141 162 10.18290/rf22703.6 On foresight functions of rhetorical invention in acts of counselling <p>Counselling acts consist in indicating useful activities, remedying human deficiencies. Counselling acts are guided by practical cognition. Since counselling activities are oriented towards the future, their crucial element is foresight. It is cognitive reflection foreseeing the implementation of counselling acts. Counselling acts are actualised in rhetorical and communicational context which is associated with persuasive delivery of counselling content. Belonging to the rhetorical canon, invention disposes of factors that influence the justifying formulation of advisory content. Invention factors introduce the anticipatory determinations and concretisations of counselling content. At rhetorical level, inventive methodology plays anticipatory functions which are convergent with tasks of foresight in practical cognition.</p> Maria Joanna Gondek Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 165 178 10.18290/rf22703.7 The Pragmatic Dimension of the So-Called Clifford’s Thesis <p>The main aim of this paper is to scrutinize William Kingdon Clifford’s ethical evidentialism and to defend it against the criticism formulated by pragmatist thinkers. Clifford famous thesis states: “It is wrong, always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence.” Clifford’s argumentation for this thesis, which fits into 19th century positivist epistemology, consciously included pragmatist elements which defy the classical pragmatist criticism of its supposed radicality. Additionally, it seems that contemporary pragmatists accounts support normative intuitions that backed up Clifford’s account of ethics of belief, proposed almost 150 years ago. The latter includes a normative-ethical argument for the grounds of epistemology.</p> Adam Dyrda Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 179 204 10.18290/rf22703.8 The Role of Personal Identity Models in Ricoeur’s Hermeneutics of the Subject <p>The paper presents the possibility of applying Ricoeur’s models of personal identity: character and keeping one’s word to clarify the dialectic of being oneself and being other. For this purpose, the relations of new models to traditional patterns of identity as being the same and being self are presented. This paper demonstrates the ability of selfhood to transcend the model of&nbsp;sameness, as revealed in the analyses of the character and keeping one’s word, and enabling the&nbsp;constitution of oneself. The role of otherness which transcends the identity aspects of oneself and thus enables the constitution of oneself as another is also analysed.</p> Michał Kumorek Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 205 230 10.18290/rf22703.9 On the Idea of the End of History in the Postmetaphysical Thought <p>The idea of the end of history is of philosophical importance and is broadly commented by&nbsp;the representatives of various philosophical traditions. In the following text we present the way in which this idea is understood in the postmetaphysical thought by referring to three of its representatives: Gianni Vattimo, Odo Marquard, and Villém Flusser. In spite of the differences between their accounts of the end of history, one can also see a certain common trait connected mostly with the understanding of history as a metanarrative and with the critical attitude towards metaphysics.</p> Antoni Torzewski Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 231 249 10.18290/rf22703.10 Conceptual Engineering and Method of Explication <p>Herman Cappelen in his book <em>Fixing language</em> (2018) proposed a project within conceptual engineering according to which what we revise in concepts is their intension and extension. He&nbsp;undertook a polemic with the ideas in concept engineering according to which we appeal to functions and purposes when revising. In the first part of this paper I describe the aforementioned discussion. In doing so, I refer to Amie Thomasson’s article “A Pragmatic Method for Normative Conceptual Work” (2020). Next, I attempt to defend positions that refer to functions and purposes in conceptual revision. For this purpose, I refer to Michael Prinzing’s article „The Revisionist’s Rubic: Conceptual Engineering and Discontinuity Objection” (2018). In the second part of the article, I intend to describe the method of explication as one of the methods by which we perform conceptual revision. I turn my attention to the explication used by Quine. He proposes to focus when explicating on what function a concept serves.</p> Artur Kosecki Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 251 272 10.18290/rf22703.11 Barbarian in the Garden: Introduction to the Discussions on Tropy i uniwersalia [Tropes and Universals] <p>In my book <em>Tropy i uniwersalia: Badania ontologiczne</em> [Tropes and Universals: Ontological Investigations], I proposed a systematic and historical analysis of the problem of universals. I distinguished three main concepts of universals, understood as common properties, common aspects or common wholes, and then I applied these concepts for a detailed analysis of the theories of Roman Ingarden, St. Thomas Aquinas and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. In this paper, I outline the methodological assumptions of my work, my understanding of universals, and the main results of my interpretations. Next, I briefly review the discussions provoked by my book. Katarzyna Barska and Marek Piwowarczyk questioned my reading of Ingarden’s theory, while Tomasz Tiuryn and Michał Głowala criticized my interpretation of Aquinas’s position. Finally, I&nbsp;analyze a way in which Karol Kleczka interestingly developed an interpretation of the notion of&nbsp;concrete universal within the framework of&nbsp;the contemporary truthmaking theory.</p> Paweł Rojek Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 277 296 10.18290/rf22703.12 Aristotle and the Beginnings of the Concept of the Universal <p>The aim of this paper is to discuss Aristotle’s concept of the universal, and in particular to&nbsp;defend the claim that Aristotle’s concept is different from the modern concept of the universal, which is understood as the entity common to many individuals. For Aristotle, the universal is first and foremost an object which is predicated, is the object of the acts of the intellect, and is the object of the definition. In the text I also show that universals in Aristotle’s theory are causally inert, so they cannot be properties or causes of properties of individuals. This makes them similar to the modern concept of abstract objects such as Frege’s senses. The immediate point of reference for this paper is Paweł Rojek’s book <em>Tropy i uniwersalia. Badania ontologiczne</em> [Tropes and Universals: Ontological Investigations] (2019). I&nbsp;argue here against Rojek’s reading of the classical concept of the universal, and above all, against his interpretation of the theory of Thomas Aquinas.</p> Tomasz Tiuryn Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 297 324 10.18290/rf22703.13 Thomas Aquinas and the Spectre of Hidden Nominalism <p>In the paper, I discuss the interpretation of the Thomistic theory of universals put forward in Paweł Rojek’s book <em>Tropy i uniwersalia. Badania ontologiczne</em> [Tropes and Universals: Ontological Investigations] in the context of the issue of hidden nominalism. My aims are threefold. (i) I suggest a more precise definition of a universal that enables a defence of basic claims by&nbsp;Rojek concerning hidden nominalism; (ii) I show that the interpretation of Aquinas put forward by Rojek does in fact collapse into hidden nominalism; (iii) I offer another interpretation of&nbsp;the Thomistic theory of universals based on the theory of <em>triplex status naturae</em> that seems free from the trap of hidden nominalism.</p> Michał Głowala Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 325 346 10.18290/rf22703.14 All Shades of Passionfruit: Three Concepts of Universals and Truthmakers <p>The aim of this article is to compare the three concepts of universals presented in “Tropes and Universals” by Pawel Rojek with theories of truthmaking. Rojek presents three approaches to the problem of unity in multiplicity: (1) specific unity which involves abstract properties, (2) general unity based on undefined aspects, and (3) concrete universals. Rojek proposes to interpret the first two in scope of truthmaking, by invoking the “passionfruit argument” and developing his own version of it. In my paper I follow Rojek's steps by developing his comparison to truthmakers to the concept of concrete universals. That development involves Schaffer’s priority monism and the concept of “the most promiscuous truthmaker”. Finally, I present my own version of the “passionfruit argument” that uses the notion of grounding.</p> Karol Kleczka Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 347 365 10.18290/rf22703.15 “Common Things”: The Old and the New Concepts of Universals <p>Analytic philosophers usually believe that the problem of universals they discuss is the same problem that was discussed in antiquity and the Middle Ages. However, historians of philosophy point out that the old dispute on universals involved many different issues and did not focus on the currently debated problem of common properties. In my book <em>Tropy i uniwersalia </em>[Tropes and Universals], I assumed that the concept of universals had more or less the same meaning and I&nbsp;interpreted St. Thomas Aquinas’ position as a kind of contemporary realism. My interpretation raised interesting polemics by historians of philosophy, Tomasz Tiuryn and Michał Głowala. In this paper I attempt to examine the similarities and differences between contemporary and medieval understandings of universals and to answer some of their objections. It seems that there were at least three different notions of universals in the Middle Ages. First, they were understood as common beings, strictly identical in many realizations. This concept of universals is perhaps due to the patristic discussions of the Trinity in the fourth century. Second, universals were defined as entities predicated of the many, that is, as general concepts existing in the intellect. Third, and finally, they were thought, especially in late scholasticism, as entities divided into their realizations. Only the first concept agrees with the contemporary understanding of universals. It follows that the medieval and&nbsp;contemporary dispute over universals partially overlap. Finally, I also try to show that the&nbsp;interpretations of Aquinas’s position proposed by Tomasz Tiuryn and Michał Głowala lead in&nbsp;fact to a peculiar position that combines trope theory and Quine’s ostrich nominalism.</p> Paweł Rojek Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 367 399 10.18290/rf22703.16 What Is “Christian Ethics for the Post-Christian Age” About? <p>The text is an introduction to the discussion, presenting briefly the book that is its subject <em>Etyka chrześcijańska dla postchrześcijańkiej epoki</em> [Christian Ethics for the Post-Christian Age] by Sebastian Gałecki. The book tries to find an answer to the question of whether it is possible to re-merge the three traditions of Christian ethics (natural law, virtues, conscience) to create an ethical system expressed in a language understandable to contemporary culture, which consciously breaks up with his Christian heritage, although in fact he is still thoroughly penetrated by it.</p> Sebastian Gałecki Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 403 411 10.18290/rf22703.17 Ethics for the Post-Christian World <p>The subject of the article is an assessment of conceptualizations of the theoretical deficits in&nbsp;the doctrine of Christian ethics, both genuine and presumed ones, variously diagnosed by contemporary Christian moral philosophers. The article is a polemic with the theoretical approach to&nbsp;these deficits, as well as an attempt to overcome them, formulated by Sebastian Gałecki in his book <em>Etyka chrześcijańska dla postchrześcijańskiej epoki</em> [Christian Ethics for the Post-Christian Age] (2020). While appreciating the boldness of the theoretical task undertaken in his book, and&nbsp;the theoretical significance of the project of integrating various ethical trends now emerging within Christianity, I point out several serious shortcomings in implementing this commendable venture. I stress, among others, the excessively occidental point of view adopted by the author, questionable operationalization of the category post-Christianity in his diagnosis of contemporary social transformations, his neglect to analyze the causes, endemic to Church institutions, for the people to depart from the Christian ethical canon and the internal inconsistency of&nbsp;the attempt to&nbsp;integrate various theoretical perspectives of the contemporary Christian moral theology.</p> Adam Chmielewski Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 413 429 10.18290/rf22703.18 What Ethics for the Post-Christian World? <p>The title issue is analyzed in the article in the space of co-thinking with Sebastian Gałecki, the author of the book <em>Etyka chrześcijańska dla postchrześcijańskiej epoki </em>[Christian Ethics for a&nbsp;Post-Christian Age]. The question of a model of ethics for contemporary times, which is rightly referred to as post-Christian, is one of the most important issues of contemporary ethical research.&nbsp; The author of the above-mentioned monograph wants to build this model by integrating three, in his opinion remaining in isolation, traditions of ethics: the theory of natural law, the theory of virtues and the theory of conscience, in their contemporary interpretation by J. Finnis, A. MacIntyre and J.H. Newman. Is such a path optimal for the question posed in the title of this article? The doubts and questions raised as a result of reading Gałecki’s dissertation sketch the&nbsp;framework of an answer to this question, drawing at the same time positive paths of reflection on the shape of ethics in the times of late modernity.</p> Krzysztof Stachewicz Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 431 439 10.18290/rf22703.19 On the Ethics for the Present Times <p>The article refers to Sebastian Gałecki’s book <em>Etyka chrześcijańska dla postchrześcijańskiej epoki </em>[Christian Ethics for the Post-Christian Age], in which the author proposes the concept of&nbsp;such an ethics, based on a Christian foundation. At its core, it is a metaethical work, for which the prototype and inspiration were the taking of ethics by John Henry Newman, Alasdair&nbsp; MacIntyre and John Finnis. Broadening the research horizon of Gałecki’s book, it should be noted that all ethical systems are a challenge for contemporaries, because not only ethics, but every science conceived&nbsp; classically as <em>theoria</em> has only motivational power for practical life, and in social life it has an impact if it is translated into reliable popularization and effective dissemination of it. The “Christian” adjective merely specifies a particular ethic, determines it in a&nbsp;certain way, but does not modify it. Thus, Christian ethics is a proposal not only for concrete individual and social life, but also for theoretical ethical discussion. Nowadays, in the post-Christian era, argumentative pluralism is of great importance in this discussion. It has its foundation in the fact that the phenomenon of morality is always apprehended in the richness of its aspects, although often some of them are unjustly absolutized.&nbsp;</p> Jan Krokos Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 441 447 10.18290/rf22703.20 Compasses, Maps, and Old Wineskins: Some Remarks on the Metaphor in the Scientific Narrative <p>The article is an invitation to rethink a new and not necessarily original question — the role of metaphor in scientific writing. The immediate pretext is the metaphor of the compass, map, and training, and, in another plan, “old wineskins into which new wine is&nbsp;poured.” These figures are used by Sebastian Gałecki as the culmination of his dissertation <em>Etyka chrześcijańska dla postchrześcijańskiej epoki</em> [Christian Ethics for the Post-Christian Age], confronting the three concepts: ethics of character efficiency (virtue) (Alasdair MacIntyre), conscience (John Henry Newman), and the new theory of natural law (John Finnis). Leaving aside the essence of the content of the dissertation, I try to identify several issues and threats related to the use of metaphors by the authors. In the Umberto Eco terminology, they are regarded as “hot” and methodologically problematic elements of&nbsp;reflection and the way of writing in science. Despite the doubts and reservations about the metaphor as an “unscientific” figure, I would like to defend the right to its correct use in&nbsp;philosophy, especially in ethics. As an example of such use, I consider their use in Sebatian Gałecki’s book.</p> Marcin T. Zdrenka Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 449 464 10.18290/rf22703.21 Post-Christian Challenge to the Christian Ethics <p>In my article, I would like to answer the most important remarks and critiques to my book Christian Ethics for the Post-Christian Age], made in discussion by Adam Chmielewski, Jan Krokos, Krzysztof Stachewicz, and Marcin Zdrenka. I have divided my answers into five groups. First I deal with formal comments. Then I will move to more factual remarks, concerning the relationship between Christianity and post-Christianity, the postulate of making the three traditions of moral inquiry more consistent and the role of metaphors in philosophical writing. Finally, I dealt with the remaining significant critiques that did not relate to any of the above topics.</p> Sebastian Gałecki Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 465 485 10.18290/rf22703.22 A New, Better Man? Marcin Ferdynus Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 487 496 10.18290/rf22703.23 On the Role of Pleasure and Suffering in Achieving a Sense of Meaningful Life Anna Pietryga Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 497 504 10.18290/rf22703.24 The Age of Dopamine — How to Find a Balance in Times of Abundance Paweł Sikora Copyright (c) 2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 70 3 505 511 10.18290/rf22703.25