Relations between self-esteem dimensions and fundamental social motives
The article presents the concept of fundamental social motives, which is novel for Polish readers, and its relations with self-esteem. The studies conducted so far suggest that there may be significant correlations between various dimensions of self-esteem and fundamental motives focused on interpersonal relations (affiliation motives and mate acquisition/retention motives). Data was collected from a sample of N = 363 subjects in order to find predictors for the level and stability of self-esteem. The results include correlations between 11 scales measuring fundamental motives and self-esteem dimensions: its level and instability. Multiple regression analyses with self-esteem measures as explained variables and motives related to sociometer theory as explanatory variables were also conducted. The article presents a detailed discussion of regression analysis results for male and female samples. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
Antonucci, C., & Akiyama, H. (1987). An examination of sex differences in social support among older men and women. Sex Roles, 17(11–12), 737–749.
Babchuk, W. A., Hames, R. B., & Thompson, R. A. (1985). Sex differences in the recognition of infant facial expressions of emotion: The primary caretaker hypothesis. Ethology and Sociobiology, 6, 89–101.
Baker, M. J., & Maner, J. K. (2008). Risk-taking as a situationally sensitive male mating strategy. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 391–395.
Bale, C., & Archer, J. (2013). Self-perceived attractiveness, romantic desirability and self-esteem: A mating sociometer perspective. Evolutionary Psychology, 11(1), 68–84.
Baumeister, R., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529.
Beall, A. T., & Tracy, J. L. (2017). Emotivational psychology: How distinct emotions facilitate fundamental motives. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 11, e12303
Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310–357.
Crocker, J., & Luhtanen, R. K., Cooper, M. L., & Bouvrette, A. (2003). Contingencies of self--worth in college students: Theory and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(5), 894–908.
DeCremer, D, & Sedikides, C. (2005). Self-uncertainty and responsiveness to procedural justice. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41, 157–173.
Dzwonkowska, I., Lachowicz-Tabaczek, K., & Łaguna, M. (2008). Samoocena i jej pomiar. Polska adaptacja skali SES M. Rosenberga. Podręcznik [Self-esteem and its measurement. Polish adaptation of M. Rosenberg’s SES: A manual]. Psychological Test Laboratory of the Polish Psychological Association.
Helgeson, V. S. (1994). Relation of agency and communion to well-being: Evidence and potential explanations. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 412–428
Hilton, J. L., & von Hippel, W. (1996). Stereotypes. Annual Review of Psychology, 47(250), 237–271.
Hoffmann, H., Kessler, H., Eppel, T., Rukavina, S., & Traue, H. C. (2010). Expression intensity, gender and facial emotion recognition: Women recognize only subtle facial emotions better than men. Acta Psychologica, 135, 278–283.
Iredale, W., Van Vugt, M., & Dunbar, R. (2008). Showing off in humans: Male generosity as a mating signal. Evolutionary Psychology, 6, 386–392.
Kavanagh, P. S., Fletcher, G. J., & Ellis, B. J. (2014). The mating sociometer and attractive others: A double-edged sword in romantic relationships. Journal of Social Psychology, 154(2), 126–141.
Kavanagh, P. S., Robins, C. S., & Ellis, B. J. (2010). The mating sociometer: A regulatory mechanism for mating aspirations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(1), 120–132.
Kenrick, D. T, Griskevicius, V., Neuberg, S. L., & Schaller M. (2010). Renovating the pyramid of needs: Contemporary extensions. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), 292–314.
Kenrick, D. T., Groth, G. E., Trost, M. R., & Sadalla, E. K. (1993). Integrating evolutionary and social exchange perspectives on relationships: Effects of gender, self-appraisal, and involvement level on mate selection criteria. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 951–969.
Kenrick, D. T., Neuberg, S. L., & Cialdini, R. B. (2015). Social psychology. Goals in interaction. Boston, MA, US: Prentice Hall.
Kenrick, D. T., Neuberg, S. L., Griskevicius, V., Becker D. V., & Schaller M. (2010). Goal-driven cognition and functional behavior: The fundamental motives framework. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(1), 63–67.
Kernis, M. H., Grannemann, B., & Barclay, L. (1989). Stability and level of self-esteem as predictors of anger arousal and hostility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(6), 1013–1022.
Kernis, M. H., Grannemann, B. D., & Barclay, L. C. (1992). Stability of self-esteem: Assessment, correlates and excuse making. Journal of Personality, 60(3), 621–644.
Kernis, M. H., Paradise, A. W., Whitaker, D. J., Wheatman, S. R., & Goldman, B. N. (2000). Master of one’s psychological domain? Not likely if one’s self-esteem is unstable. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(10), 1297–1305.
Kihlstrom, J. F. (2012). Searching for the self in mind and brain. Social Cognition, 30(4), 367–379
Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Ellis, B. J. (2001). An evolutionary-psychological approach to self-esteem: Multiple domains and multiple functions. In G. J. O. Fletcher & M. S. Clark (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Interpersonal processes (pp. 411–436). Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell.
Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Ellis, B. J. (2006). The adaptive functions of self. Evaluative psychological mechanisms. In M. H. Kernis (Eds.), Self-esteem issues and answers: A sourcebook of current perspectives (pp. 334–339). New York, NY, US: Psychology Press.
Kozłowska, M., & Lachowicz-Tabaczek, K. (2018). Polish version of the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory: Development and psychometric properties. Unpublished material.
Leary, M. R. (2005). Sociometer theory and the pursuit of relational value: Getting to the root of self-esteem. European Review of Social Psychology, 16(1), 75–111.
Leary, M. R., & Baumeister, R. F. (2000). The nature and function of self-esteem: Sociometer theory. In M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Advances in experimental social psychology (vol. 32, pp. 1–62). San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press.
Leary, M. R., Schreindorfer, L. S., & Haupt, A. L. (1995). The role of self-esteem in emotional and behavioral problems: Why is low self-esteem dysfunctional? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 14, 297–314.
Łaguna, M., Lachowicz-Tabaczek, K., & Dzwonkowska, I. (2007). Skala samooceny SES Morrisa Rosenberga – polska adaptacja metody [SES Morris Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale: Polish adaptation of the method]. Psychologia Społeczna, 2(4), tom 2, 164–176.
Markus, H., & Wurf, E. (1987). The dynamic self-concept: Social psychological perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 38, 299–337.
Neel, R., Kenrick, D. T., White A. E., & Neuberg, S. L. (2016). Individual differences in fundamental social motives, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110(6), 887–907.
Pawłowski, B., & Dunbar, R. (1999). Impact of market value on human mate choice decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society in London, Series B, 266(1416), 281–285.
Rosenfeld, M. (2017). Who wants the breakup? Gender and breakup in heterosexual couples.In D. F. Alwin, D. Felmlee, & D. Kreager (Eds.), Social networks and the life course: Integrating the development of human lives and social relational networks (pp. 221–243). New York, NY, US: Springer.
Tesser, A. (1988). Towards a self-evaluation maintenance model of social behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 181–227.
Walen, H. R., & Lachman, M. E. (2000). Social support and strain from partner, family, and friends: Costs and benefits for men and women in adulthood. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 17(1), 5–30.
Waschull, S. B., & Kernis, M. H. (1996). Level and stability of self-esteem as predictors of children’s intrinsic motivation and reasons for anger. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 4–13.
Webster, G. D., Smith, C. V., Brunell, A. B., Paddock, E. L., & Nezlek, J. B. (2016). Can Rosenberg’s (1956) Stability of Self Scale capture within-person self-esteem variability? Meta--analytic validity and test-retest reliability. Journal of Research in Personality, 69, 156–169.
Wojciszke, B., & Szlendak, M. A. (2010). Skale do pomiaru orientacji sprawczej i wspólnotowej [Scales for measuring the agentic and communal orientation]. Psychologia Społeczna, 5, 1(13), 57–70.
Copyright (c) 2019 Roczniki Psychologiczne / Annals of Psychology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.