Prioritizing Positivity Scale: Psychometric Properties of the Polish Adaptation (PPS-PL)

Keywords: prioritizing positivity, happiness, well-being, satisfaction with life, psychometric properties


Prioritizing positivity means making decisions and choices about everyday activities to increase the chances of experiencing positive emotions. People have different levels of prioritizing positivity (PP), and the Prioritizing Positivity Scale is used to capture such individual differences. Past research indicates that prioritizing positivity is conducive to well-being. The following article presents the Polish adaptation of the Prioritizing Positivity Scale (PPS) and its psychometric properties. There were three samples in this study (n1 = 229, n2.= 253, n3 = 226). The method has a single-factor structure and high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .84 to .87). Prioritizing positivity measured with the Polish version of the Prioritizing Positivity Scale was associated with several indicators of well-being.


Arbuckle, J. L. (2014). Amos (Version 23.0) [Computer Program]. IBM SPSS.

Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.

Block, J., & Kremen, A. M. (1996). IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 349–361. https://doi:10.1037/0022-3514.70.2.349

Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. The Guilford Press.

Caprara, G. V. (2009). Positive orientation: Turning potentials into optimal functioning. The Bulletin of the European Health Psychologist, 11(3), 46–48.

Caprara, G. V., Alessandri, G., Eisenberg, N., Kupfer, A., Steca, P., Caprara, M. G., Yamaguchi, S., Fukuzawa, A., & Abela, J. (2012). The Positivity Scale. Psychological Assessment, 24(3), 701–712.

Catalino, L. I., Algoe, S. B., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2014). Prioritizing positivity: An effective approach to pursuing happiness? Emotion, 14, 1155–1161.

Catalino, L. I., & Boulton, A. J. (2020). The psychometric properties of the Prioritizing Positivity Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 103(5), 705–715.

Catalino, L. I., Van Cappellen, P., Boulton, A., Firestine, A., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2017). Prioritizing positivity predicts engagement in new wellness behaviors that evoke positive emotions. [Manuscript in preparation].

Cohn, M. A., Fredrickson, B. L., Brown, S. L., Mikels, J. A., & Conway, A. M. (2009). Happiness unpacked: Positive emotions increase life satisfaction by building resilience. Emotion, 9, 361–368.

Czarniecka, I. D., Glińska, K. M., Wika, M. T., & Szóstakiewicz, O. A. (2012). Paradoksalne skutki wartościowania szczęścia [Paradoxical effects of happiness valuation] [Unpublished manuscript]. Institute of Psychology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań.

Datu, J. A. D., & King, R. B. (2016). Prioritizing positivity optimizes positive emotions and life satisfaction: A three-wave longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences, 96, 111–114.

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S., (1985). The Satisfaction With Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.

Diener, E., Sandvik, E., & Pavot, W. (1991). Happiness is the frequency, not the intensity, of positive versus negative affect. In F. Strack, M. Argyle, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Subjective well-being: An interdisciplinary perspective. Pergamon.

Elliot, A. J., & Sheldon, K. M. (1998). Avoidance personality goals and the personality-illness relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1282–1299.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218–226.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 1–53.

Fredrickson, B. L., Tugade, M. M., Waugh, C. E., & Larkin, G. R. (2013). What good are positive emotions in crisis? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 365–376.

Jankowski, K. S. (2015). Is the shift in chronotype associated with an alteration in well-being? Biological Rhythm Research, 46(2), 237–248.

John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five Trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 102–138). Guilford Press.

Kaczmarek, Ł. (2011). Skala Sprężystości Psychicznej – polska adaptacja Ego Resiliency Scale [Polish adaptation of the Ego Resiliency Scale]. Czasopismo Psychologiczne, 17, 263–265.

Krok, D. (2009). Religijność a jakość życia w perspektywie mediatorów psychospołecznych. Redakcja Wydawnictw WT UO.

Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46(2), 137–155.

Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 803–855.

Łaguna, M., Oleś, P., & Filipiuk, D. (2011). Orientacja pozytywna i jej pomiar: Polska adaptacja skali orientacji pozytywnej [Positive orientation and its measure: Polish adaptation of the Positivity Scale]. Studia Psychologiczne, 49(4), 47–54.

Mauss, I. B., Tamir, M., Anderson, C. L., & Savino, N. S. (2011). Can seeking happiness make people unhappy? Paradoxical effects of valuing happiness. Emotion, 11, 807–815.

Neff, K. D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self & Identity, 2(3), 223.

Passmore, H.-A., Howell, A. J., & Holder, M. D. (2018). Positioning implicit theories of well-being within a positivity framework. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(8), 2445–2463.

Radoń, S. (2014). Pięciowymiarowy kwestionariusz uważności: Polska adaptacja [Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire: Polish adaptation]. Annals of Psychology, 17(4), 711–735.

Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385–401.

Russo-Netzer, P. (2019). Prioritizing meaning as a pathway to meaning in life and well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20(6), 1863–1891.

Russo-Netzer, P., & Littman-Ovadia, H. (2019). “Something to Live for”: Experiences, resources, and personal strengths in late adulthood. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2452.

Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069–1081.

Schütz, E., Sailer, U., Al Nima, A., Rosenberg, P., Andersson Arntén, A. C., Archer, T., & Garcia, D. (2013). The affective profiles in the USA: Happiness, depression, life satisfaction, and happiness-increasing strategies. PeerJ, 1:e156.

Strus, W., Cieciuch, J., & Rowinski, T. (2014b). Polska adaptacja kwestionariusza IPIP-BFM-50 do pomiaru pięciu cech osobowości w ujęciu leksykalnym [Polish adaptation of IPIP-BFM-50 for measuring five personality traits using a lexical approach]. Roczniki Psychologiczne, 17(2), 327–346.

Van Cappellen, P., Rice, E. L., Catalino, L. I., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2018). Positive affective processes underlie positive health behaviour change. Psychology & Health, 33(1), 77–97.

Ziarko, M., Kaczmarek, Ł., & Haładziński, P. (2014). Polish version of Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D): Results of a preliminary study on the psychometric properties of the scale. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 1(1), 51–61.