The Relationship with the Father and the Emotional Functioning of Women in Adulthood

Keywords: women, father, bond, parental attitude, anxiety, anger, depression, curiosity


Some studies, conducted also in Poland, show that the influence of fathers’ behavior on their daughters extends beyond childhood. For example, fathers’ parental attitudes assessed retrospectively (such as demands, inconsistency, lack of acceptance, and lack of autonomy) are associated with different mental disorders experienced by their adult daughters. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the retrospective evaluation of the relationship with the father explains the emotional functioning of women in early and middle adulthood. The participants were 180 women aged between 20 and 53. We used the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Questionnaire of Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitudes, and the Trait Personality Inventory. Our findings support a link between the relationship with the father and the emotional functioning of women. In future it would be advisable to broaden the scope of the study by including groups of daughters in adolescence and in late adulthood or women with various problems.


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