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This article presents the history of Poles living in Estonia, dating back to the 16th century, when the territory of Livonia (today’s Estonia) was incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. For centuries, Poles were important members of the local community, mainly at the University of Dorpat (Tartu). In the 19th and 20th centuries, they created many organisations; the article briefly describes the activities of some of them. The author also presents the current activity of Estonian Polonia in organising various events, meetings or stimulating economic ties between Poland and Estonia, as well as cooperation with Polish institutions.