Studia Norwidiana <p><strong>Studia Norwidiana</strong> belong to unique Polish scientific journals and are entirely devoted to research on one of the greatest Polish and European poets and artists. The journal publishes the works of the most outstanding Norwid experts from domestic and foreign centers.</p> Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL & Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II en-US Studia Norwidiana 0860-0562 Editorial and bibliographical note Redakcja SN Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 3 3 Paths of virtue in Vade-mecum. Cyprian Norwid’s poetic aretology <p>This article discusses the concept and imagery of virtue in Norwid’s cycle of poems <em>Vademecum</em>, focusing on lyrical pieces that refer directly to this subject (“Larwa” [The Larva], “Fatum” [Fate], “Ironia” [Irony] ,“Zawody” [Disappointments], “Centaury” [Centaurs], “Królestwo” [Kingdom], “Cnót-oblicze” [Face-of-Virtues], “Bohater” [Hero], “Ideał i reformy” [Ideal and Reforms],“Fortepian Szopena” [Chopin’s Piano]). They are nevertheless considered in the light of his entire body of work and on the backdrop of ancient – Greek and Roman – as well as Christian aretology. Norwid’s poetic study of virtue remains closely connected with these traditions, but is also inspired by literature (especially Homer, Prudentius and Dante) and art (the iconography of virtue). As analyses demonstrate, an aretology that involves reflection on virtues such as valour, moderation, justice and <em>kalokagathia </em>constitutes an important factor that binds together <em>Vade-mecum </em>at the levels of the development of the lyrical subject, the epic dimension of the cycle, as well as the anthropological and ethical issues it raises. These questions facilitate better understanding of Norwid’s concept of a poet-moralist and his diagnosis regarding the crisis of humanity in the nineteenth century.</p> Agnieszka Ziołowicz Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 5 30 10.18290/sn2139.1 Vade-mecum in the perspective of time. Topic outline <p>This article addresses a conceptual and artistic issue that is vital for Norwid’s entire work, namely the relationship between time and movement. This question has preoccupied philosophers and poets since antiquity, giving birth for example to the ingenious concept of time-space developed by Alfred Einstein, and leading further to string theory, multidimensional physics, or noncommutative geometry. In the field of poetry, this theme has been elaborated in the myth of “eternal recurrence,”brilliant ancient Greek tragedies, Shakespeare’s dramatization of human fate as the temporal course of the inevitable consequences of compacts with evil (as in Macbeth), the piercing reinterpretation of the Passion in Mickiewicz’s psychomachia (in the third part of <em>Dziady </em>[Forefathers’ Eve]), the apocalyptic visions in Krasiński’s <em>Nie- Boska komedia </em>[The Undivine Comedy], and explorations of the (often allegorized) question of historical turning points in Norwid’s <em>Quidam</em>, which is set “between dawn and the fading of the night…”Finally, in philosophy, Hegel postulated the logical conclusion of history in his profound theory about the culmination of historical processes.</p> <p>In Norwid’s poetry, images of movement in time are usually anchored in the sequence of events or in the consequences of concluding on the basis of articulated premises (as “movement of thought”). What is notable here is not the perspective of some indefinable transformation considered as the effect of anonymous processes, but rather the establishing of certain consequences of “unfolding,” which is often expressed in poetic terms as a surprising point that communicates an explicit or implicit “moral lesson,” sometimes as a result of supernatural intervention, as in the poem “XIV. Litość” [XIV. Mercy], where a sequence of ostensible or conventional signs of compassion are interrupted by a “bolt out of the blue,” demanding authentic help for our neighbour.</p> <p>It is worth remembering that <em>Vade-mecum </em>is, to a large extent (if not essentially), a programmatic work on the one hand, while on the other – an authentic selection of poems written in the years 1848-1866 subjected to a specific programmatic function that foregrounds moral obligations as a poetic response to the vital needs of the times – an artistic gesture meant to offer an answer to the problems of this period. Hence the immense sense of a lack of fulfilment experienced by Norwid as an “extra actor” in the theatre of an age that Zofia Stefanowska called “the age of trade and industry.”</p> Józef Franciszek Fert Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 31 55 10.18290/sn2139.2 Vade-mecum and the poeticization of epistolography <p>This article attempts to highlight relationships between poems from the collection <em>Vade-mecum </em>and Norwid’s epistolography. These ties manifest not only on the genetic level, but also in terms of themes as well as stylistic and lexical elements (including key words), primarily with regard to the use of communication structures. What draws attention in these poems is the use of dialogue and the incorporation of colloquial and epistolographic phrases.In his letters, on the other hand, the poet displays a predilection for saturating certain passages with formulas and expressions of distinctly poetic character.</p> Arent van Nieukerken Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 57 80 10.18290/sn2139.3 Problems with Norwid’s enunciations (not only) in Vade-mecum. Some remarks regarding interpretation and methodology <p>This article indicates key problems related to the interpretation of selected enunciations in Vade- mecum,and develops a new formula for describing Norwid’s syntactic strategies. The assumption that the subject of analysis is not comprised by abstract syntactic structures but empirical, used and actualized enunciations entails the necessity to acknowledge their multi-layered character and the import of other levels than that of syntax, especially thematic-rhematic structure and metatext. As presented analyses show, taking these aspects into account helps to successfully settle certain interpretative dilemmas. The proposed expansion of perspective also allows one to grasp certain features that contribute to the specificity of Norwid’s syntax, which mobilizes and utilizes various levels of enunciation.</p> Anna Kozłowska Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 81 97 10.18290/sn2139.4 Vade-mecum in relations to the English-written poetry cycles of the second half of the XIX century <p>The aim of the study is to initiate the considerations over the systemic ways of <em>Vade- -mecum</em>’s reading that at the same time may determine the new starting point to rearrange the comparative reflection on the cycle and its precursorship. Possibilities of reading as such seem to be given by so called synthetic comparatistics, and in that spirit there is being coinstuted the basic line of compilating and comparing – <em>Vade-mecum </em>with Alfred Tennyson’s <em>In Memoriam</em>, Walt Whitman’s <em>Leaves of Grass </em>as well as Gerard Manley Hopkins’s <em>Poems</em>. The result of confronting of those perspectives have been expressed in specific conclusions, among others – the strong cycle’s semanticising tendency in Norwid’s, Tennyson’s, Whitman’s and Hopkins’s cases and, after all, the experiments in the area of maintaining and breaking the continuity of cycle’s diegesis – clearly outlined within the Norwid’s and Whitman’s cycles. Studying as well as comparing the structural aspects of cycles of Norwid, Tennyson, Whitman and Hopkins may lead to the cautious fixing the new point zero of research – literary comparatistics, which could be named the conditional and analytical ones.</p> Karol Samsel Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 99 115 10.18290/sn2139.5 Norwid’s insects. “Ostatnia z bajek,” or on the beauty of existence <p>This article offers an interpretation of one of Norwid’s late works: <em>Ostatnia z bajek </em>[The Last of the Fairy Tales].The starting point for this specific reading is the question regarding the image and meaning of the insects invoked in this workas well as the lyrical dimension of this fairy-tale-like fable. The article reveals the impact of Romantic entomology as well as specific passages from Zygmunt Krasiński’s <em>Nie-Boska Komedia </em>[The Undivine Comedy] on the ways in which Norwid develops an image of the world as a place where humans coexist with other beings and experience the painful loss of the bond with these fellow creatures. Lyricism and subjectivity in “Ostatnia z bajek”are rooted in the author’s contemplative attitude towards broadly understood reality. This raises the question posed in the title – one regarding the beautyof existence – which defines the the main topic of Norwid’s lyrical fairy tale.</p> Ewa Szczeglacka-Pawłowska Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 117 134 10.18290/sn2139.6 When every debut is a farewell. “Ostatni mój sonet” by Norwid and “Adieux à la poésie” by Louise Ackermann <p>This article offers a comparative interpretation of two poems: “Ostatni mój sonet” [My Last Sonnet] by Cyprian Norwid and “Adieux à la poésie” by Louise Ackermann. Although these two authors differ in terms of sex, nationality, artistic style as well as the national and European reception of their work, these two poems are only four years apart. Both prove to be interesting material for study due to their simultaneous “debut” and “late” character: they describe gestures of bidding farewell to poetry in some specific aspect and in general. The lonely existence of the lyrical “I” in Ackermann’s poem and its sombre mood can be juxtaposed with the relation between “I” and “you” and the increasing scale of emotions in the lyric by Norwid, leading to 150 the conclusion that both works elaborate on the theme of human indifference to the feelings of others, and on the misunderstanding of both authors’ poems by their readers. What dominates in the case of Ackermann is the fear of lack of empathy, while Norwid emphasizes the problem of conventions that hinder real communication. What this is proves is that in these “debuts” the two authors bid farewell only to certain properties of poetry characteristic of the period’s lyricism (expression of the feelings of the lyrical subject and the convention of sonnet-like love lyricism), while these two poems themselves open passages to different stages of poetic creation.</p> Magdalena Kowalska Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 135 150 10.18290/sn2139.7 The cleanliness of Lord Singelworth <p>The paper presents an analysis of the protagonist of <em>Tajemnica Lorda Singelworth </em>[Lord Singleworth’s Secret] in terms of the 19th century imagology. The analysis shows that the character was created on the basis of stereotypes of the British that were popular in Europe at that time. They account for Singleworth’s oddities such as flying in a hot air balloon or his obsession with cleanliness. They also explain why the majority of those who observed Lord’s balloon passion unanimously accepted its surprising justification – the need to deal with his gastric problems. This is then complemented by the peculiar arrogance, moral motivation for action, sense of mission and escapism. The author of the paper assumes that the character of an Englishman developed in such a way and placed in Venice on the threshold of historical changes might be a literary self-portrait of Norwid.</p> Dariusz Pniewski Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 151 162 10.18290/sn2139.8 Poets meeting in space and word. On Norwid’s poems addressed to Józef Bohdan Zaleski <p>This article offers an interpretation of two poems by Cyprian Norwid, which are addressed toJózef Bohdan Zaleski: “Do Józefa Bohdana Zaleskiego w Rzymie 1847-o”[To Józef Bohdan Zalski in Rome, in the year 1847] and “Na przyjazd Teofila Lenartowicza do Fontainbleau” [On the Arrival of Teofil Lenartowicz in Fontainbleau] The latter is a poetic letter that recommends to Lenartowiczthat he should pay a visit to the Zaleski family. These poems allow us a glimpse into the relationship between three nineteenth-century poets. The article elaborates on certain biographical elements but primarily reveals how the Norwid regarded the differences between his own imagination and poetic stance on the one hand and the works of his two friends on the other. Further, it shows how the awareness of this opposition led the poet to recognize aspects of his own place on the map of Polish poetry. Microanalysis of selected themes also facilitates indicating certain features they all share.</p> Grażyna Halkiewicz-Sojak Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 163 177 10.18290/sn2139.9 On Norwid’s poem “Początek broszury politycznej…” <p>This article attempts to interpret the poem “Początek broszury politycznej…” [The Beginning of a Political Pamphlet…] building on readings by J. Puzynina, B. Subko, Z. Trojanowiczowa, and J. Trznadel. In comparison with these earlier interpretations, this article emphasizes to a greater extent the historical context of the poem’s creation, primarily the events related to the January Uprising. To achieve this goal, the poem is read in the light of Norwid’s journalism from that period and interpreted as a polemic with the traditional model of Polish patriotism, which was characterized by the tendency to take actions that were not preceded by reflection and would not take into account possible victims.</p> Łukasz Niewczas Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 179 191 10.18290/sn2139.10 The spaces of Norwid’s Assunta. Some interpretative remarks <p>This article offers an aspectual analysis of the long poem <em>Assunta </em>by Cyprian Norwid. Its first goal is to examine ways of creating space and contrasts (garden-salon; mine-monastery) as well as to tie the changes and varieties of space with the protagonist’s course of thoughts. The second aim is to study these spaces in metaphorical sense, i.e. as an intertextual context, primarily in order to compare Norwid’s work with <em>W Szwajcarii </em>[In Switzerland] by Juliusz Słowacki. In a broader perspective it becomes vital, however, to demonstrate how Norwid ingenuously interprets the poem by Słowacki. Incidentally, the article also revisits one question that recurs in many studies, namely that of similarities between <em>Assunta </em>and the Platonic tradition. In this area, the article revises certain claims, demonstrating that the role of Socrates is played not only by the protagonist (in relation to readers) but also by Assunta (in relation to the protagonist).</p> Paulina Abriszewska Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 193 211 10.18290/sn2139.11 Pope’s Letter Translated by Norwid, the Mystery of the Poet’s Gift to the Pope and the Fortress of Bomarsund <p>The paper discusses a previously unknown first publication of the pope Pius IX’s letter to Norwid in a local weekly “Tygodnik Katolicki” in Grodzisk Wielkopolski near Poznań on June 21st, 1861. The author proves that both the Polish translation of this Latin letter and an introductory note were written by Norwid himself. The author also identifies Norwid’s two gifts to the pope as a 1683 Austrian medal of Our Lady of Mariazell (by Paul Seel) and a French medal commemorating the siege of Sebastopol (1855, work of Louis Desaide and Pierre Roquelay). In the final part of the paper the latter is opposed to a Latin ode, written by Mickiewicz on the occasion of the capture of Bomarsund, interpreted as signs of two contrary historiosophical visions: that of Poland versus the Ottoman Empire in the defense of Christianity in 1683 and that of France allied with the Ottoman Empire against Russia during the Crimean War (1853-56).</p> Jan Zieliński Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 213 233 10.18290/sn2139.12 Castra Annibalis <p>The article presents and discusses the unknown watercolour of Cyprian Norwid „Castra Annibalis” from 1850, which represents the Carthaginian military camp from the times of the Second Punic War. The watercolour was exhibited in 1947 in the Museum of the Greater Poland in Poznan at the exhibition organised for the 125th anniversary of the birth of Norwid. At that time, the owner of the piece swas the historian of Polish literature, professor Roman Pollak.</p> Edyta Chlebowska Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 235 247 10.18290/sn2139.13 Society and history, or money and blood. Economy in Norwid’s Vade-mecum <p>The subject of money occupies a prominent place in <em>Vade-mecum</em>, reflecting the significance of finance and economy in socio-political and philosophical theories of the nineteenth century. The question of “capital” emerges in many poems from the cycle, e.g. in “Socjalizm” [Socialism], “Larwa” [The Larva], “Stolica” [Capital City], “Prac-czoło” [The-Forehead-of- Labor]“Syberie” [Syberias], “(Co słychać?)” [How are you?] and “Nerwy” [Nerves]. Norwid’s opus magnumwas written in the period of intense changes in capitalist economy, notably in the wake of the global crisis following the American Civil War (1866), whose consequences are discussed by Marx in the first volume of Capital (1867). The famous publication by the German economist constitutes an important context for Norwid’s cycle, although the two are worlds apart in ideological terms. The poet was nevertheless greatly inspired by Proudhon’s works, which he read in the 1840s alongside other utopian socialists (possibly Owen), who would propose abandoning money in its traditional form as an antidote to economic crises and mass poverty. Additionally, Norwid’s letter dated 15 July 1867 (PW IX, 297) contains a trace of the poet’s reading of August Cieszkowski’s treatise <em>Du Crédit, et de la Circulation </em>(Paris 1839) and proof of contacts with the economist Ludwik Wołowski, co-founder and director of the Parisian bank Crédit Foncier de France (established in 1852). The above two men introduced some of the brilliant credit ideas developed by Prince Drucki-Lubecki to the France of Napoleon III . In <em>Vade-mecum </em>Norwid polemicizes both with utopian concepts of a socialist, moneyless economy and with Polish organicist ideas basing on profit economy and visions of economic success. Norwid recognized their departure from the Decalogue, the category of “conscience,” and Christian soteriology. In this sense, Vade-mecum becomes a Romantic and Christian attempt to return the question of money to its original context: that of ideals and spiritual life.</p> Renata Gadamska-Serafin Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 249 291 10.18290/sn2139.14 Michał Kleczkowski – the parallel life of Norwid’s cousin <p>Cyprian Norwid’s cousin Michał Kleczkowski chose an untypical career of a sinologist. As a professional translator and diplomat in the French service, he was finally awarded the positon of a chargé d’affaires, and after a long time spent in China (1847-63) he was made consulgeneral for Chinese affairs, eventuallybecoming professor of Chinese at the École nationale des langues orientales vivantes for a period of twelve years. He represented a new type of professional diplomat, and although he would receive support from influential figures, he owed his career mainly to diligence and engagement. His professionalism and probably rather conventional morality created tension in his relations with Norwid, who subscribed to a much different ideal of a free artist and wouldnot accept technical work on conditions dictated by others. The article attempts to balance the so far negative assessment of Kleczkowski’s attitude to Norwid by indicating that the poet’s cousin supported Norwid financially for twelve years, passing to him a significant portion of his own income. Further, the article challenges the negative view of OEuvre de Saint-Casimir, showing that it was a respectable institution that granted its inhabitants relative dignity, especially in comparison with the conditions suffered by the Parisian poor who had no support. Theses formulated in the article are illustrated with passages from Kleczkowski’s correspondence, which is preserved in the Princes Czartoryski Museum in Kraków.</p> Bogdan Zemanek Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 293 310 10.18290/sn2139.15 On The Death of Saint Joseph. Notes on the book by Jan Zieliński <p>This article introduces French press sources discussing the painting <em>The Death of Saint Joseph </em>exhibited in Galerie Colbert in Paris during the summer of 1862, whose authorship was attributed at the time to Raphael. One admirer of the exhibition was Cyprian Norwid.Under the impression that he was in the presence of a Renaissance masterpiece, he wrote two touching letters to Joanna Kuczyńska, in which he shared his impressions of the exhibition. The cited sources supplement the findings contained in the book by Jan Zieliński, reveal the inside story behind the mystification, and narrate the future fate of the painting admired by the poet.</p> Aleksandra Sikorska-Krystek Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 311 330 10.18290/sn2139.16 Worlds and life. Metaphors of poetry in polish literary criticism in the romantic era <p>This article discusses the book <em>Światy i życie. </em><em>Metafory poezji w polskiej krytyce literackiej doby romantyzmu </em>[Worlds and Life. Metaphors of Poetry in Polish Literary Criticism in the Romantic Era] by Marek Stanisz. The review emphasizes the immense documentary and analytical value of this study, especially the broad discussion of statements made by Romantic literary critics about poetry and the concept of the poet. At the same time, the review polemicizes with the claim that original metaphors constitute the semantic core of Polish Romantic criticism.</p> Łukasz Niewczas Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 331 334 10.18290/sn2139.17 The “vertical” dimension of norwidology <p>The sketch deals with the problem of Norwid's irony related to his anthropology. This issue appears in discussion with the book by Lidia Banowska (<em>Byt i światłocień. O antropologii poetyckiej Norwida</em>). The consideration lead to the conclusion that solving the aesthetic problem of the poem is the interpreter's task.</p> Bernadetta Kuczera-Chachulska Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 345 355 10.18290/sn2139.18 Index of name Piotr Chlebowski Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 357 370 Index of titles Norwid’s works Piotr Chlebowski Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Norwidiana 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 39 371 376