Studia Norwidiana <p><strong>Studia Norwidiana</strong> belong to unique Polish scientific journals and are entirely devoted to research on one of the greatest Polish and European poets and artists. The journal publishes the works of the most outstanding Norwid experts from domestic and foreign centers.</p> Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL & Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II en-US Studia Norwidiana 0860-0562 Bibliographic Note Redakcja Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 3 3 Russia an empire of the “form” in Cyprian Norwid’s writings <p>The aim of the article is to analyse Norwid’s historiosophical reflections on Russia, in which the key role is played by metaphors based on the relationship between the “form” and the “content”. This metaphoricity is reflected in the popular motif in the poet’s works, which considered the relationships of the “word” – the “letter” and the “spirit” – the “body”. In the analysed fragments, mainly from the poem <em>Niewola</em>, tsarist, imperialist Russia appears as an empire of the “form”, which in this case is supposed to mean the dominance of formalism and broadly understood enslavement over the spiritual content. In Norwid’s eyes, Russia, similarly to imperial Rome, stands in a clear opposition to the spirit of freedom, nation or humanity. The poet’s vision reflects the popular trends in the 19<sup>th</sup>-century literature.</p> Magdalena Karamucka-Marcinkiewicz Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 5 15 10.18290/sn.2019.37-1 „Tatarski czyn” between hierarchy and eruption (semantics, contexts, and consequences) <p>Drawing on a scholarly polemic of the 1930s, this paper differentiates between two ways of understanding and translating Cyprian Norwid’s formula “tatarski czyn,” as ‘Tatar <em>deed</em>’ (from the Polish <em>czyn</em>) or as ‘Tatar rank’ (from the Russian <em>chin</em> according to the Tsarist <em>Table of Ranks</em>). The aim is to show how the eruptive versus the hierarchical readings of “tatarski czyn” have influenced the opinions on Norwid’s dialogic treatise <em>Promethidion</em> (1851) and, more generally, on his criticism of the utopian thought of Polish Romanticism and of Russian po-litics. It was Adam Mickiewicz who in the 1820s and 1830s pointed to the homonymy between <em>czyn</em> and <em>chin</em> and its potential in enacting ambivalences between the seemingly incommensurable imaginaries of eruption and hierarchy. Moreover, Mickiewicz already linked both understandings of <em>czyn</em> with a stereotypical Tatar, or Mongolian, “Asianness.” In this respect, Norwid’s formula is fairly conventional. What is genuinely original, however, is how Norwid turns Mickiewicz’s earlier ideas <em>against</em> those of the later Mickiewicz who, in his Paris Lectures on the Slavs (1840–1844), seems to glorify the “Tatar deed.” In contrast to the “bloody ladder” of Russian bureaucracy and the irrational tendency in Mickiewicz’s activism, Norwid suggests a “gradual labor” <em>culminating</em> in, not erupting with, the deed (<em>Promethidion</em>). This aspect of Norwid’s metaphorical thought is shown in a parallel reading with the philosopher August Cieszkowski who, in his <em>Prolegomena to Historiosophy</em> (1838), conceptualized history as a “texture of deeds” leading to institutions. Similarly, Norwid’s positive notion of the deed, i.e. his revision of Romantic activism, should be situated beyond the alternatives of eruption and hierarchy.</p> Christian Zehnder Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 17 42 10.18290/sn.2019.37-2 Syberie by Norwid <p>The article is an interpretation of Norwid’s poem entitled <em>Syberie</em>, one of the works in the <em>Vade-mecum</em> series. Referring to the literature of the subject (inter alia, Zofia Trojanowiczowa, Włodzimierz Toruń), the author puts forward the thesis that the poem is a lyrical masterpiece, maximally condensing the extensive content related to Siberia and the exiles, which is a major subject of 19<sup>th</sup>-century Polish literature. Norwid’s poem, set in author’s contexts and in the contexts of the epoch, reveals its depth and possibilities of poetic synthesis. In the article, the author proves the “participation” of the work in the three great dialogues of that time provoked by the subject of Siberia.</p> Magdalena Woźniewska-Działak Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 43 58 10.18290/sn.2019.37-3 Norwid and the exiles to Siberia <p>The exiles to Siberia had a profound influence on Norwid’s consciousness already in his middle school years (i.e. in the 1830s) as the next wave (following the one after the failure of the November Uprising) began at that time. The subject of exile and martyrdom was often discussed by Norwid in conversations and correspondence with his friends. Even among the poet’s close and distant relatives, there were many people who were affected by the deportation to the East (Józef Hornowski, the Kleczkowski family, Konstanty Jarnowski). The list of Norwid’s friends who were deported to Syberia is horribly long: Karol Baliński, Maksymilian Jatowt (pseud. Jakub Gordon), Agaton Giller, Karol Ruprecht, Stefan Dobrycz, Andrzej Deskur, Bronisław Zaleski, Antoni and Michał Zaleski, Anna Modzelewska and her brother, Aleksander Hercen, Piotr Ławrow. There were also some occasional meetings with the exiled or their families (Aniela Witkiewiczówna, Aleksander Czekanowski). Norwid attentively listened to oral accounts of those who returned, he also read publications on Siberian themes published from the early 1950s (among others, by Giller, Gordon, B. Zaleski). In his speeches and letters he repeatedly drew attention to the necessity of commemorating the “Siberian exiles” and providing them with support – both spiritual and material – as well as establishing the Siberian Society, “where all single sufferings and conquest would come to balance”. Providing the exiled with state protection and enabling them to return to their homeland became even one of the points of Norwid’s project for the political and social principles of future Poland.</p> Renata Gadamska-Serafin Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 59 89 10.18290/sn.2019.37-4 Polish “imaginary”: Norwid’s reading of Anhelli <p>The aim of the article is to answer the question how Cyprian Norwid understood Juliusz Słowacki’s poem entitled <em>Anhelli</em> (1838). Norwid’s interpretation of <em>Anhelli</em>, which was put forward in his lectures <em>O Juliuszu Słowackim</em> (1961), was significantly different from the previous ones. Before Norwid, the critics of <em>Anhelli</em> admired its aesthetic layer and appreciated the documentary motifs, but could not make sense of its extremely pessimistic message. Norwid, however, interpreted <em>Anhelli</em> as an allegorical reflection of what Charles Taylor would have called the Polish social imaginary. Emphasising the role of the metaphorical meaning of a few motifs in the world presented (especially the one of Siberia as the „negative pole” of the Polish civilisation and the picture of characters as supporters of particular ethical views), Norwid interpreted Słowacki’s poem as an allegory of a grave crisis of the Polish collective consciousness as well as a picture of the decay of the national community. In this way, Norwid’s reflection on <em>Anhelli</em> gave him the opportunity to criticise the qualities of the 19<sup>th</sup>-century Polish culture and the mentality of the then emigrants.</p> Marek Stanisz Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 91 115 10.18290/sn.2019.37-5 Russia: Asia or Europe? Reflections on the awareness of the Polish intelligentsia in the 19th century as the ideological context of Norwid’s work <p>The article discusses the views of the Polish intelligentsia in Cyprian Norwid’s lifetime on the issue of Russia’s membership in Europe. Among the discussed examples there are particularly frequent attempts to push Russia out of Europe by emphasising its Asian character. The examples of pan-Slavic ideas are less frequent. Against this background, Norwid’s views on the question of Russia’s Asianness seem to be exceptionally balanced. The poet noticed that Russia was different, but he believed that isolating it from Europe could be more detrimental than beneficial.</p> Anna M. Dworak Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 117 129 10.18290/sn.2019.37-6 “Eagle? It is not half-turtle, half-thunder”. The problem of romantic irony in Vade-mecum <p>Numerous studies on the works composing the volume <em>Vade-mecum</em> confirm that although the individual poems are characterised by great ethical sensitivity and strong moral rigour, it is difficult to clearly define the worldview of Norwid’s work. The author of the article proposes an interpretation of <em>Vade-mecum</em>, taking into account the problem of Romantic irony. The poet uses irony as a tool to reach the elusive Truth. For him, ironic distance is not distancing himself from the views professed in particular works, but an awareness of the imperfections of a language which may falsify those views. Irony helps him in his quest to “give the right word to the thing”, not allowing the language to simplify or reduce the moral statements expressed in individual works.</p> Gerard Ronge Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 131 143 10.18290/sn.2019.37-7 Christ and children. Graphic inedita of Norwid <p>The aim of the article is to present two previously unknown drawings by Norwid, inspired by the New Testament, which have recently been added to the register of his artistic legacy. The first of the sketches <em>Chrystus i dzieci w świątyni jerozolimskiej</em> [<em>Christ and Children in the Temple of Jerusalem</em>] (1855, lost) illustrates a quotation from the Gospel of Matthew (Mt 21, 15-17). The second composition <em>Chrystus błogosławiący dzieci</em> [<em>Christ Blessing Children</em>] (1857, National Library) refers to an episode mentioned several times in the Gospels (Mt 19, 13-15; Mk 10, 13-16; Lk 18,15-17).</p> Edyta Chlebowska Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 145 158 10.18290/sn.2019.37-8 Friends of Norwid from Maria de Bonneval’s album <p>The article offers a general description of the contents of a 19<sup>th</sup> century photo album belonging to Maria de Bonneval née Gerlicz, the niece of Konstancja Górska. Along with the history of photography and CdV photos, which revolutionised the market and customs at that time, the figure of the owner of the album is presented – with the use of previously unknown materials. Norwid had been guest to her Parisian house for several decades, almost as a household member. It turns out that in this 200-photograph album currently owned by the Bloch Family Foundation, more than 70 people were known to Norwid. We have thus the opportunity to see the images of many of them for the first time, while the album can be treated as a document belonging to Norwid himself.</p> Adam Cedro Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 159 179 10.18290/sn.2019.37-9 Norwid’s works in Ludwik Gocel’s collection <p>Ludwik Gocel (1889-1966) was an expert on the November Uprising and the creator of a large historical collection documenting this national liberation uprising. He was also interested in the biography of Cyprian Norwid and the reception of the poet’s work, some of which were part of his collection. Based, inter alia, on the materials from Gocel’s archive and his legacy, and the content of his letter of December 1957, this sketch discusses a fragment of the history of Norwid’s autograph of the poem <em>Italiam!Italiam!</em> The sketch outlines the circumstances in which Gocel obtained the poem for his collection in 1949, which after a few years, in 1957, he handed over to Fawley Court in England, where it supplemented the collection of Father Józef Jarzębowski, a Marian, expert on Norwid and collector of national memorabilia. The text also takes into account an important aspect of the cooperation between the two bibliophiles Gocel and Jarzębowski, owing to which Norwid’s manuscript has been preserved and today it is exhibited in the Museum in Licheń Stary. In addition, the article presents several other manifestations of Gocel’s interest in Norwid.</p> Jacek Serwański Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 181 199 10.18290/sn.2019.37-10 The eagle from Rzecz o wolności słowa <p>The article attempts at explaining the motif of the eagle which appears in the final Song XIV in the poem <em>Rzecz o wolności słowa</em>. Previous scholars have unambiguously associated this symbolic vision with the apocalypse and with the figure of St John. The reading of Volney’s <em>Travels through Syria and Egypt</em>, supported by the source description of Palmyra’s ruins from Robert Wood’s <em>The Ruines of Palmyra, otherwise Tedmor, in the Desert</em> (1753), points rather to an archaeological source of Norwid’s imagery – the image of the ruins of the Palmyrene Temple of the Sun (Baal).</p> Piotr Chlebowski Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 201 216 10.18290/sn.2019.37-11 Linguistic notes: on iota and comma <p>In Norwid’s writings, the nouns <em>koma </em>[comma] and <em>jota </em>[iota] that literally mean respectively: ‘comma’ and ‘the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet’ or ‘the Polish letter and consonant j’, in the vast majority of cases have secondary, figurative meanings – in particular, when they are elements of phraseological units, but also in some other contexts they usually refer to some small elements of a text. It is symptomatic that a large part of Norwid’s usages more or less directly refer to the well-known biblical quotation from the Gospel of Matthew, which in King James Version reads: “For verily I say unto you, till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.”</p> <p>Norwid’s use of comma and iota analysed in this article indirectly confirms the importance that the poet attached not only to the graphic layout and punctuation, or more generally to the formal aspects of the texts, but also to their proper, profound understanding.</p> Tomasz Korpysz Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 217 227 10.18290/sn.2019.37-12 Norwid’s Roma antiqua in its full version <p>Magdalena Karamucka’s book <em>Antyczny Rzym Norwida</em> [<em>Norwid’s Ancient Rome</em>] is the first monographic study of the problem addressed in the title. Ancient Rome is presented in this valuable study from different perspectives: as a geographical, historical and cultural reality and as a literary topos. The starting point for the discussion is a chapter devoted to a Roman episode of Norwid’s biography and his Roman readings. Another subject of analysis are the poet’s political, religious and historiosophical reflections about Rome and his remarks on literature, art and Roman theatre. The main, comparative part is devoted to a meticulous analysis of reminiscences, quotations (paraphrases), titles, etc. taken from works of Roman authors (including Catullus, Horace, Juvenal, Ovid, Virgil), Norwid’s translational work and his Roman correspondence. However, Norwid’s Roma antiqua presented in the monograph is not frozen in a dead form. The author shows in an interesting and convincing way how this <em>romanitas</em> becomes a starting (or reference) point for the author of <em>Quidam</em> in his reflections on almost all aspects of his contemporary times.</p> Renata Gadamska-Serafin Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 229 250 10.18290/sn.2019.37-13 Between “completeness” and “lack” <p>The article presents a review of Dominika Wojtasińska’s book <em>O koncepcji kobiety “zupełnej” w pismach Cypriana Norwida</em> [<em>On the Concept of a ”Complete” Woman in the Writings by Cyprian Norwid</em>]. The book is an attempt at capturing Norwid’s view of the essence, place and role of women in the context of the transformation of 19<sup>th</sup>-century society. In her reflections, the author refers to the following contexts: biographical, sociological and religious; she also refers to 20<sup>th</sup>-century Christian feminism and to the philosophy of dialogue represented by Emmanuel Lévinas and Józef Tischner. The researcher is searching for the models of the female “completeness” in the ancient and biblical tradition and in the medieval historical tradition. In her book, the author presents Norwid as a poet who anticipates the 20<sup>th</sup>-century emancipatory movements and Christian feminist concepts.</p> Sławomir Rzepczyński Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 251 261 10.18290/sn.2019.37-14 The time of the “black sun” <p>The text concerns the literary presentation of experiencing time that was characteristic of Romantics. In his latest book, Piotr Śniedziewski mentions time as a problem considered by 19<sup>th</sup>-century artists several times. The article presents this issue using the current reflection on the experience (Frank Ankersmit’s “historical sublime experience”) and the findings concerning the impact of photography that has been developing rapidly since 1839, on the way the literary represented world is shaped, as well as the use of photography as a tool of analysing time (“the visual model of time”).</p> Dariusz Pniewski Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 263 273 10.18290/sn.2019.37-15 25 years of the Norwid Foundation Józef Franciszek Fert Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 275 279 10.18290/sn.2019.37-16 Christianity for all. A few words on Quidam by C. Norwid Rolf Fieguth Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 281 284 10.18290/sn.2019.37-17 Index of names Łukasz Niewczas Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 285 296 Index of titles Norwid’s works Łukasz Niewczas Copyright (c) 2019 Studia Norwidiana 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 37 297 300