Searching for Predictors of Safe Driving Behaviour as an Important Activity in Achieving an Integrated Traffic System. Research on the Behavioural Criterion of the Psychometric Test Validity for Drivers

Keywords: safety road performance, road drivers behavioural scale, psychometric tests diagnostic and prognostic validity, discriminatory analysis, integrated traffic system


Safety in road traffic as a system in which there are dynamic interactions between its different users depends on how integrated it is. In this system, drivers are a favoured group of users. Unfortunately they are also the most dangerous group, as research shows. Studying the causes of dangerous driving behaviour is still important.

The paper aims to present the psychometric methodology to define the diagnostic and prognostic validity of some psychometric tests used by transport psychologists. Our statistical analysis included the four experimental groups of professional drivers with motor vehicle accident and one control group of drivers whose road performance had no motor vehicle accident recordings.

The novelty of the study presented here is in linking the psychometric tests outcomes of professional road drivers (city bus drivers, school bus drivers, taxi drivers, ambulance drivers, fire trucks drivers, police drivers, military vehicle

drivers, special vehicle drivers etc.) and their behavioral safety performance on public roads (i.e. causing road accidents, road collisions, participating in accidents but not causing it, and participating in road collision but not causing it) – which aims to indicate the diagnostic and prognostic validity of these tests for drivers.

Discriminatory analysis based on Fisher ĝ-function was used to find discrepancies between the specific test outcomes of the road drivers in the control group and the four risky behaviour groups. The identified discrepancies are interpreted in terms of equivalence between the diagnostic and prognostic validity of the taken into consideration psychometric tools used by psychologists for diagnosing road drivers.


af Wahlberg, A. E., Dorn, I., & Kline, T. (2010). The effect of social desirability on self-reported and recorded road traffic accidents. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 13, 106–114.

Aldred, R., Croft, J., & Goodman, A. (2019). Impacts of an active travel intervention with a cycling focus in a suburban context: One-year findings from an evaluation of London’s in-progress mini-Hollands programme. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 123, 147–169.

Arthur, Jr., & Graziano, W. G. (1996). The five-factor model, conscientiousness, and driving accident involvement. Journal of Personality, 64(3), 593–618.

Benfield, J. A., Szlemko, W. J., & Bell, P. A. (2007). Driver personality and anthropomorphic attributions of vehicle personality relate to reported aggressive driving tendencies. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 247–258.

Bone, S. A., & Mowen, J. C. (2006). Identifying the traits of aggressive and distracted drivers: A hierarchical trait model approach. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 5, 454–464.

Chang, L. Y. (2014). Analysis of effects of manhole covers on motorcycle driver maneuvers: A nonparametric classification tree approach. Traffic Injury Prevention, 15(2), 206–212.

Chapman, P., & Underwood, G. (2000). Forgetting near-accidents: The roles of severity, culpability and experience in the poor recall of dangerous driving situations. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14, 31–44.

Clarke, D. D., Ward, P., Bartle, C., & Truman, W. (2007). The role of motorcyclist and other driver behaviour in two types of serious accident in the UK. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(5), 974–981.

Cox, B. L., & Mutel, C. L. (2018). The environmental and cost performance of current and future motorcycles. Applied Energy, 212, 1013–1024.

Crundall, D., Crundall, E., Clarke, D., & Shahar, A. (2012). Why do car drivers fail to give way to motorcycles at t-junctions? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 44(1), 88–96.

Cushman, L. A., (1992). The impact of cognitive decline and dementia on driving in older adults. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Dahlen, E. R., Martin, R. C., Ragan, K., & Kuhlman, M. M. (2005). Driving anger, sensation seeking, impulsiveness, and boredom proneness in the prediction of unsafe driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37(2), 341–348.

Dahlen, E. R., & White, R. P. (2006). The big five factors, sensation seeking, and driving anger in the prediction of unsafe driving. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 903–915.

Darby, P., Murray, W., & Raeside, R. (2009). Applying online fleet driver assessment to help identify, target and reduce occupational road safety risks. Safety Science, 47(3), 436–442.

De Raedt, R., & Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I. (2006). Self-serving appraisal as a cognitive coping strategy to deal with age-related limitations: An empirical study with elderly adults in a real life stressful situation. Aging and Mental Health, 10(2), 195–203.

Donovan, D. M., Queisser, H. R., Salzberg, P. M., & Umlauf, R. L. (1985). Intoxicated and bad drivers: Subgroups within the same population of high-risk drivers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 46, 375–382.

Dunning, D., Meyerowitz, J. A., & Holzberg, A. D. (1989). Ambiguity and self-evaluation: The role of idiosyncratic trait definitions in self-serving assessments of ability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1082–1090.

Elliott, M. A., Baughan, C. J., & Sexton, B. F. (2007). Errors and violations in relation to motorcyclists’ crash risk. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(3), 491–499.

Erlander, J., West, R., & French, D. (1993). Behavioural correlates of individual differences in road-traffic crash risk: An examination of methods and findings. Psychological Bulletin, 113(2), 279–294.

Gotschi, T., Garrard, J., & Giles-Corti, B. (2016). Cycling as a part of daily life: A review of health perspectives. Transport Reviews, 36(1), 45–71.

Lyons, G., Hammond, P., & Mackay, K. (2020). Reprint of: The importance of user perspective in the evolution of MaaS. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 131, 20–34.

Garity, R. D., & Demick, J. (2001). Relations among personality traits, mood states, and driving behaviors. Journal of Adult Development, 8(2), 109–118.

Gregersen, N. P., & Bjurulf, P. (1996). Young novice drivers: Towards a model of their accident involvement. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 28, 229–241.

Groeger, J. A., & Rothengatter, J. A. (1998). Traffic psychology and behaviour. Transportation research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 1, 1–9.

Habib, K. N., Mann, J., Mahmoud, M., & Weiss, A. (2014). Synopsis of bicycle demand in the City of Toronto: Investigating the effects of perception, consciousness and comfortability on the purpose of biking and bike ownership. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 70, 67–80.

Hirst, D. (2020). Active travel: Trends, policy and funding. House of Commons Library. Retrieved August 10, 2021, from

Horswill, M., Anstey, K. J., Wood, J., & Hatherly, C. (2010). The crash involvement of older drivers is associated with their hazard perception latencies. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16(5), 939–944.

Horswill, M. S., & McKenna, F. P. (2004). Drivers’ hazard perception ability: Situation awareness on the road. In S. Banbury & S. Tremblay (Eds.), A cognitive approach to situation awareness: Theory and Application (pp. 155–175). Aldershot.

Iversen, H., & Rundmo, T. (2002). Personality, risky driving and accident involvement among Norwegian drivers. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(8), 1251–1263.

Jaworowska, A. (2011). EPQ-R Kwestionariusz osobowości Eysencka. Polskie Towarzystwo Psychologiczne.

Jaworowska, A., & Szustrowa, T. (2000). TMS-K – Test Matryc Ravena w Wersji Standard – forma Klasyczna. Polskie Towarzystwo Psychologiczne.

Johnson, M., Newstead, S., Oxley, J., & Charlton, J. (2013). Cyclists and open vehicle doors: Crash characteristics and risk factors. Safety Science, 59, 135–140.

Jonah, B. A., Thiessen, R., & Au-Yeung, E. (2001). Sensation seeking, risky driving and behavioral adaptation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 33, 679–684.

Lajunen, T. (2001). Personality and accident liability: are extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism related to traffic and occupational fatalities? Personality and Individual Differences, 31(8), 1365–1373.

Lawrence, B. M., Oxley, J. A., Logan, D. B., & Stevenson, M. R. (2018). Cyclist exposure to the risk of car door collisions in mixed function activity centers: A study in Melbourne, Australia. Traffic Injury Prevention, 19(suppl.), 164–168.

Lev, D., Hershkovitz, E., & Yechiam, E. (2008). Decision making and personality in traffic offenders: A study of Israeli drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40, 223–230.

Mannering, F. L., & Grodsky, L. L. (1995). Statistical analysis of motorcyclists’ perceived accident risk. Accident Analysis Prevention, 27(1), 21–31.

Maycock, G., Lockwood, C. R., & Lester, J. F. (1991). Accident Liability of car drivers. Transport and Road Research Laboratory.

McIlroy, R. C., Plant, K. L., & Stanton, N. A. (2021). Thinking aloud on the road: Thematic differences in the experiences of drivers, cyclists, and motorcyclists. Transportation Research Part F, 83, 192–209.

McKenna, F. P. (1982). The human factor in driving accidents: An overview of approaches and problems. Ergonomics, 25, 867–877.

McKenna, F. P. (1983). Accident proneness: A conceptual analysis. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 15, 65–71.

McKenna, F. P., & Horswill, M. S. (1999). Hazard perception and its relevance for driver licensing. Journal of the International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences, 23(1), 26–41.

Miles, D. E., & Johnson, G. L. (2003). Aggressive driving behaviors: Are there psychological and attitudinal predictor? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 6, 147–161.

Munster, D., Koorey, G. F., & Walton, D. (2001). Role of road features in cycleonly crashes in New Zealand. Transfund New Zealand.

Mynttinen, S., Sundstrom, A., Vissers, J., Koivukoski, M., Hakuli, K., & Keskinen, E. (2009). Self-assessed driver competence among novice drivers – A comparison of driving test candidate assessments and examiner assessments in a Dutch and Finnish sample. Journal of Safety Research, 40(4), 301–309.

Neun, M., & Haubold, H. (2016). The EU Cycling Economy – Arguments for an integrated EU cycling policy. Brussels: European Cyclists’ Federation. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development & European Conference of Ministers of Transport (2006). Young drivers: The road to safety. Joint OECD/ECMT Transport Research Centre.

Owsley, C., McGwin Jr. G., & McNeal, S. F. (2003). Impact of impulsiveness, venturesomeness, and empathy on driving by older adults. Journal of Safety Research, 34(4), 353–359.

Ozkan, T., & Lajunen, T. (2005). Multidimensional traffic locus of control scale (TLOC): Factor structure and relationship to risky driving. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(3), 533–545.

Panek, J., & Benediktsson, K. (2017). Emotional mapping and its participatory potential: Opinions about cycling conditions in Reykjavik, Iceland. Cities, 61, 65–73.

Pelz, D. C., & Krupat, E. (1974). Caution profile and driving record of undergraduate males. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 6, 45–58.

Plant, K. L., & Stanton, N. A. (2015). The process of processing: Exploring the validity of Neisser’s perceptual cycle model with accounts from critical decision-making in the cockpit. Ergonomics, 58(6), 909–923.

Renner, W., & Anderle, F. G. (2000). Venturesomeness and extraversion as correlates of juvenile drivers’ traffic violations. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 673–678.

Salmon, P. M., Stanton, N. A., Walker, G. H., & Jenkins, D. P. (2009). Distributed situation awareness: Advances in theory, measurement and application to teamwork. Ashgate.

Salmon, P. M., Lenne, M. G., Walker, G. H., Stanton, N. A., & Filtness, A. (2014).

Exploring schema-driven differences in situation awareness between road users: An on-road study of driver, cyclist and motorcyclist situation awareness. Ergonomics, 57(2), 191–209.

Salmon, P. M., Young, K. L., & Cornelissen, M. (2013). Compatible cognition amongst road users: The compatibility of driver, motorcyclist, and cyclist situation awareness. Safety Science, 56, 6–17.

Samuel, O., Walker, G., Salmon, P., Filtness, A., Stevens, N., Mulvihill, C., & Stanton, N. (2019). Riding the emotional roller-coaster: Using the circumplex model of affect to model motorcycle riders’ emotional state-changes at intersections. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 66, 139–150.

Schachter, S., & Singer, J. (1962). Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Review, 69(5), 379–399.

Schwebel, D. C., Ball, K. K., Severson, J., Barton, B. K., Rizzo, M., & Viamonte, S. M. (2007). Individual difference factors in risky driving among older adults. Journal of Safety Research, 38(5), 501–509.

Smith, D. I., & Kirkham, R. W. (1981). Relationship between some personality characteristics and driving record. British Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 229–231.

Strahan, R. F., Mercier, C. R., Mercier, J. M., & O’Boyle, M. W. (1997). Personality structure of elderly drivers. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 85(2), 747–755.

Sundstrom A. (2011). The validity of self-reported driver competence: Relations between measures of perceived driver competence and actual driving sill. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 14, 155–163.

Taubman-Ben-Ari, O., Mikulincer, M., & Gillath, O. (2004). The multidimensional driving style inventory – scale construct and validation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 36(3), 323–332.

Tiffin, J., & McCormick, E. J. (1980). Industrial psychology. Prentice-Hall.

Walker, G. H., Stanton N. S., & Salmon P. M. (2011). Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(3), 878–888.

Williams, C. L., Henderson, A. S., & Mills, J. M. (1974). An epidemiological study of serious traffic offenders. Social Psychiatry, 9, 99–109.

World Health Organization. Global plan for the decade of action for road safety 2011–2020. Retrieved May 10, 2013, from

Zawadzki, B., Strelau, J., Szczepaniak, P., & Śliwińska, M. (1998). Inwentarz Osobowości NEO-FFI [NEO-FFI Personality Inventory]. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych.

Zhu, J., & Fan, Y. (2018). Daily travel behavior and emotional well-being: Effects of trip mode, duration, purpose, and companionship. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 118, 360–373.

Zillmann, D. (1978). Attribution and misattribution of excitatory reactions. In J. H. Harvey, W. J. Ickes, & R. F. Kidd (Eds.), New directions in attribution research (Vol. 2, pp. 335–368). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.